Machine Safety

Chapter 296-806, WAC

Effective Date: 01/01/05

Helpful Tools

WAC 296-806-430

Forging Machines

For printing


WAC 296-806-43002  

Follow these safety requirements when using lead and lead casts

You must

1) Provide thermostats for heating elements to prevent overheating.

2) Provide a means of exhaust for fixed or permanent lead pot installations.

3) Provide a covered container to store dross skimmings.

4) Keep equipment clean, especially from accumulations of yellow lead oxide.



  • For requirements about Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), see the Safety and Health Core Rules,
    WAC 296-800-160.
  • For ventilation requirements when using portable lead pot units, see the General Occupational Health Standards, Chapter 296-62 WAC.


WAC 296-806-43004

Properly inspect and maintain forging equipment

You must
  • Keep all forge shop equipment in safe operating condition.
  • Train personnel in proper inspection and maintenance procedures.
  • Establish periodic and regular safety inspections.
  • Schedule frequent and regular safety inspections of all guards and point of operation protection devices.
  • Keep written records of safety inspections that include all of the following:
    • – Date of the inspection
    • – Signature of the person doing the inspection
    • – Serial number or other identification for the piece of equipment inspected
  • Safeguard all overhead machinery parts so they don't fly off or fall, if the equipment breaks.

WAC 296-806-43006

Use safety blocks on hammers and presses

You must
  • Use safety blocks on hammers and presses when dies are being changed and maintenance or repair work is being done on the machine.
  • Provide safety blocks or wedges that meet or exceed the specifications and dimensions shown in Table 430-2.
Table 430-2
Strength and Dimensions for Wood Safety Blocks or Wedges

Size of timber inches using actual dimensions 4x4 6x6 8x8 10x10 12x12  
Square inches in cross section 16 36 64 100 144  
Miminum allowable crushing strength parallel to grain, p.s.i. 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 Note:
Adapted from U.S. Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin 479. Hardwoods recommended are those whose ultimate crushing strengths in compression parallel to grain are 5,000 p.s.i. (pounds per square inch) or greater.
Maximum static load within short column range 80,000 180,000 320,000 500,000 720,000 Note:
Slenderness ratio formula for short columns is L/d=11, where L=length of timber in inches and d=least dimension in inches; this ratio should not exceed 11.
Safety factor 10 10 10 10 10  
Maximum recommended weight of forging hammer for timber used 8,000 18,000 32,000 50,000 72,000  
Maximum allowable length of timber in inches 44 66 88 100 132  


WAC 296-806-43008

Make sure tongs meet these requirements

You must

  • Make sure tongs used with hammers, presses, upsetters, and forging equipment used in boltheading and rivet making, meet the following requirements:
    • – They are long enough so the worker can use the tongs without standing behind them, in order to avoid injury, in case of kickback.
    • – The handle ends aren't sharp.



  • The worker should be instructed about proper body positions when using tongs.
  • Tongs should be checked periodically to see that they remain at the proper hardness level for the job.
  • Rings or equivalent devices that are used for locking tongs should be inspected periodically to make sure they are safe.

WAC 296-806-43010

Protect employees when removing scale

You must

  • Protect employees at every hammer and press by:
    • – Making sure they don't place a hand or arm between the dies by providing them with devices that reach the full length of the die when removing scale.
    • – Examples include:
        • Oil swabs
        • Scale removers
        • Other devices that remove scale by reaching the full length of the die
        • Stopping flying scale through construction and arrangement of a scale guard that's of substantial construction at the back of every hammer and press.

WAC 296-806-43012

Provide adequate foundations for hammers and presses

You must

  • Provide foundations adequate to support the imposed weight and normal work stress for hammers and presses.
    • – Hammers and presses must remain on their foundations.

WAC 296-806-43014

Follow these requirements for manually operated valves and switches

You must

  • Make sure all manually operated valves and switches are clearly identified and readily accessible for all of the following:
    • – Presses
    • – Upsetters
    • – Forging equipment involved in boltheading and rivet making



WAC 296-806-43016

Use die keys and shims made of proper-grade material

You must

  • Make sure that die keys and shims are made from a grade of material that won't easily crack or splinter



  • Die keys and shims shouldn't project more than 2 inches in front and 4 inches in back of the ram or die.

WAC 296-806-43018

Provide a safety cylinder head

You must

  • Make sure that every steam, airlift, or air hammer has a safety cylinder head that acts as a cushion if the rod breaks or pulls out of the ram.

WAC 296-806-43020

Provide a shutoff valve

You must

  • Provide each steam and airlift hammer with a quick-closing emergency valve in the admission pipeline that's distinctly marked and in a convenient location.
    • – This valve needs to be closed and locked in the “off” position when the hammer is being adjusted, repaired, or serviced, or the dies are being changed.



  • For requirements about Lockout/Tagout (Control of Hazardous Energy), see Chapter 296-803 WAC.

WAC 296-806-43022

Provide a means for cylinder draining

You must

  • Provide a means for draining cylinders on steam hammers.
  • Provide airlift hammers with both main head and clamp cylinder drains.

WAC 296-806-43024

Follow these requirements for pressure pipes

You must

  • Provide steam or air pressure piping on power-driven hammers that meets or exceeds the requirements in:
    • – ANSI B31.1.0-1967, Power Piping, with addenda ANSI B31.1.06-1971, for hammers constructed before January 1, 2005.
    • – ANSI B31.1.0-2001, Power Piping, with addenda ANSI B31.1.0A-2001, for hammers constructed on or after January 1, 2005.

WAC 296-806-43026

Follow these requirements when using board hammers

You must

  • Securely fasten a suitable enclosure to gravity-dropped board hammers to prevent damaged or detached boards from falling.
  • Properly secure all major assemblies and fittings that can loosen and fall.



WAC 296-806-43028

Protect against sparks from saws

You must

  • Provide all saws with a sheet metal guard that's positioned to stop sparks.
    • – The guard must be constructed of at least 1/8 inch sheet metal.



  • It's advisable to provide all saws with a means to trap sparks below the saw and to use a tank of water below the saw to reduce the fire hazard.



  • Other saw requirements may be found in Saws and cutting heads, WAC 296-806-480.

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