Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard Mills and Converters

Chapter 296-79, WAC

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New Rule Activity Related Policies


WAC

296-79-010 Scope and application.

296-79-011 Definitions.

296-79-020 General requirements.

296-79-030 Guards and guarding.

296-79-040 Fire protection, ignition sources and means of egress.

296-79-050 Personal protection clothing and equipment.

296-79-070 Illumination.

296-79-080 Elevators, manlifts and other lifting devices.

296-79-090 Electrical equipment and distribution.

296-79-100 Floors, platforms, stairways, ladders, loading docks.

296-79-110 Elevated runways and ramps used by vehicles.

296-79-120 Scaffolds, construction, use and maintenance.

296-79-130 Crossovers, aisles, passages.

296-79-140 Installation, inspection, and maintenance of pipes, piping systems, and hoses.

296-79-150 Powered industrial trucks and other equipment.

296-79-160 Requirements for cranes and hoists--General safety and health standards

chapter 296-24 WAC, Part D.

296-79-170 Requirements for crawler and truck cranes.

296-79-180 Privately owned standard gauge railroad operations.

296-79-190 Loading and unloading materials from railway cars or trucks.

296-79-200 Bridge and dock plates.

296-79-210 For conveyors, maintenance and inspection.

296-79-220 Deactivating and lockout requirements.

296-79-230 Confined spaces.

296-79-240 Storage of fuel, oil, flammables and chemicals.

296-79-250 Safety procedure for handling sulfur.

296-79-260 Pulpwood storage and handling.

296-79-270 Pulpwood preparation.

296-79-27003 Log hauls, slips, and carriages.

296-79-27005 Band saws.

296-79-27007 Circular saws speeds and repairs.

296-79-27009 Slasher saws-tables.

296-79-27011 Circular swing saws.

296-79-27013 Drag saws--Fixed chain saws--Circular cut-off saws.

296-79-27015 Construction and use of pulpwood splitters.

296-79-280 Chip and hog fuel storage.

296-79-290 Stock preparation and reprocessing.

296-79-29001 Digester valves and piping.

296-79-29003 Warning of digester being blown.

296-79-29005 Unplugging quick lime stoppages.

296-79-29007 Bleach plant.

296-79-29009 Audible alarm in bleach plant.

296-79-29011 Pocket grinder doors.

296-79-29013 Pulping device procedures.

296-79-29015 Off machine repulping devices.

296-79-29017 Pulping device cleaning, inspection and repairing.

296-79-29021 Shredders and blowers.

296-79-29023 Clearing shredder jams.

296-79-29027 Guillotine type roll splitters.

296-79-29029 Broke hole.

296-79-29031 Industrial kiln guns and ammunition.

296-79-29033 Chlorine dioxide system.

296-79-29035 Piling and unpiling pulp.

296-79-29037 Chocking rolls.

296-79-300 Machine room equipment and procedures.

296-79-310 Converting operations (bag and container manufacturing, printing, coating,

finishing and related processes)

296-79-31001 General requirement for converting operations (bag and container manufacturing, painting, coating, finishing and related processes.

296-79-31003 Corrugator.

296-79-31009 Die cutting.

296-79-320 Sulfite recovery furnace area requirements.

WAC 296-79-010 Scope and application.

(1) This chapter applies to establishments, firms, persons and corporations that manufacture, process, store, finish, or convert pulp, paper or paperboard and includes all buildings, machinery, and equipment.

(2) This chapter shall augment the Washington state general safety and health standards (chapter 296-24 WAC), general occupational health standards (chapter 296-62 WAC), and safety and health core rules (chapter 296-800-WAC). In the event of any conflict between any portion of this chapter and any portion of any of the general application standards, the provisions of this chapter 296-79 WAC, shall prevail.

(3) The rules contained in this chapter are minimum requirements and the use of additional guards, or other means, methods or procedures may be needed to make the work or place of work safe...

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 01-11-038 (Order 99-36), 296-79-010, filed 05/09/01, effective 09/01/01 Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 99-16-083 (Order 99-11), 296-79-010, filed 08/03/99, effective 11/03/99. Order 74-24, 296-79-010, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-010, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]

WAC 296-79-011 Definitions.

Authorized” - One who is qualified by reason of training and to whom the responsibility to perform a specific assignment has been given by the employer.

Guarded” - The means to remove the likelihood of approach or contact by persons or objects to a point of danger.

Knowledgeable” - The demonstrated ability to communicate the safe work practices required to perform a job or task correctly.

Qualified” - One who is familiar with the construction and operation of the equipment and the duties of the position they may be filling. This includes being aware of the hazards of the job and the means and procedures necessary to eliminate or control those hazards.

Training” - The procedure that must establish and document the employee's competency in the work practices that they are required to perform.

Shall” or “must” as used in this standard mean the requirement is compulsory.

May” or “should” as used in this standard identify recommendations or suggestions only.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 99-16-083 (Order 99-11), 296-79-011, filed 08/03/99, effective 11/03/99.]

WAC 296-79-020 General requirements.

(1) Housekeeping.

(a) Floors must be kept reasonably clear of spilled or leaking oil, grease, water, broke, etc., that may cause slipping, tripping or falling. Nonskid type surfacing must be installed in vehicular or pedestrian traffic areas where slipping hazards otherwise would exist.

In areas where it is not possible to keep the floor free of materials which cause a slipping hazard, mats, cleats, or other suitable materials which will effectively minimize or eliminate the hazard must be installed.

(b) Hoses, cords, slings or similar items or equipment must be stored in such a manner that they will not create a hazard.

(2) Storage and transportation of materials. Materials, objects or equipment must be stored or transported by methods which will prevent them from falling, tipping or rolling.

(3) Warning of open manholes or excavations. Open manholes or excavations must be:

  • Roped off, barricaded, or adequately-safeguarded when located in or adjacent to walkways, aisleways, or roadways.

  • Provided with warning lights or lanterns during periods of darkness or reduced visibility.

(4) Training. Employees must receive proper instruction and be familiar with safe operating procedures:

(a) Before they supervise the operation, or make adjustments to any machine or equipment.

(b) To be able to cope with emergencies arising from breaks, ruptures, or spills which would create a hazardous condition.

(c) For lifting and moving objects. Mechanical devices should be used or employees should ask for assistance in lifting or moving heavy objects.

(d) On prompt reporting of any faulty equipment or hazardous condition to the person in charge.

(5) Working alone. When an employee is assigned to work alone in a remote or isolated area, procedures must be developed to ensure:

  • That the employee reports by use of radio or telephone to someone periodically; or

  • At reasonable intervals a designated person must check on the employee; and

  • All persons involved in working alone are advised of the procedures to be followed.

(6) Exits from hazardous areas. Where physically and reasonably possible, there must be at least two unobstructed exits from any hazardous area. Such exits should be on opposite walls.

(7) Safe work area. Sufficient clearance must be maintained between machines to allow employees a safe work area.

(8) Protection from overhead hazard. Warning signs/devices must be:

  • Placed in conspicuous locations below areas where overhead work is being done and

  • Removed promptly when work is completed and the overhead hazard no longer exists.

(9) Welding areas protected.

(a) Areas in which welding is being done must be screened or barricaded to protect persons from flash burns, when practical.

(b) If the welding process cannot be isolated, all persons who may be exposed to the hazard of arc flash must be properly protected.

(10) Testing safety devices. Brakes, back stops, anti-runaway devices, overload releases, emergency stops, and other safety devices must be inspected and tested frequently to ensure that all are operative and maintained in good repair.

(11) Starting and stopping devices:

  • Electrically or manually operated power starting or stopping devices must be provided within easy reach of the operator from the normal operating position.

  • If necessary for safety of the operation, the machine must be so equipped that retarding or braking action can be applied at the time of or after the source of power is deactivated.

(12) Interlocks:

Interlocks that affect the safety of employees must not be bypassed except where the employer demonstrates that alternate procedures or devices provide a level of safety for employees equivalent to that provided by the safety interlock. Interlocks are considered to be bypassed anytime the designed control strategy is bypassed by means including, but not limited to, a temporary wiring change, physical interference or a temporary software change of “force.”

Prior to bypassing a safety interlock the employer must:

  • Develop a written procedure detailing how the bypass will be accomplished and the alternate means of protecting employees.

  • Inform affected employees of all pertinent information including at a minimum the reason for the change, the date of the change, who is responsible for the change, and approximately how long the change will be in effect.

  • Post appropriate warning of the change on the equipment or area.

(13) Designing control systems. Employers must ensure that all control systems are designed to:

  • Ensure that the system does not create an unsafe state that endangers personnel.

  • Ensures that when control systems fail, the equipment being controlled fails to a safe state.

  • Have an independent method to safely stop the process or equipment, such as a hardwired emergency stop button or other controls that deenergize the system, or independent methods to force the system to a safe state.

(14) Compressed air.

(a) Compressed air must not be used for cleaning clothing that is being worn, or if it will endanger persons in the area.

(b) Sections of high pressure air hoses must be properly coupled and have safety chains or equivalent safety device attached between the sections (30 psi or more is high pressure air).

(15) Punch bars. Open pipes must not be used as punch bars if the use would create a hazard.

(16) Saw table limit stop or extension. Employees must be protected from contact with the front edge of a circular saw by:

  • A limit stop which will prevent the forward swing of the cutting edge from extending beyond the edge of the table or

  • Installation of a table extension.

(17) Powder-actuated tools:

  • Powder-actuated tool design, construction, operation and use shall comply with all requirements specified in “safety requirements for powder actuated fastening systems,” (see chapter 296-24 WAC, Part H-1).

  • A careful check must be made to ensure that no cartridges or charges are left where they could enter equipment or be accidentally discharged in any area where they could create a fire or explosion hazard.

(18) Ladders required on waterfront docks. Employers must ensure that either permanent ladders or portable ladders:

  • Are readily available for emergency use on all waterfront docks.

  • Extend from the face of the dock to the water line at its lowest elevation.

  • Are installed at intervals not to exceed 400 feet.

  • Are noticeable by painting the dock area immediately adjacent to the ladder with a bright color which contrasts with the surrounding area.

  • Have been secured with a suitable method.

Note: When working on or around water also see WAC 296-800-160.

(19) Prevent overhang while removing materials. Extreme care must be taken to prevent material from creating an overhang while removing the materials from piles or bins.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 01-11-038 (Order 99-36), 296-79-020, filed 05/09/01, effective 09/01/01 Statutory Authority: Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 99-16-083 (Order 99-11), 296-79-020, filed 08/03/99, effective 11/03/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 82-13-045 (Order 82-22), 296-79-020, filed 6/11/82; Order 77-12, ..296-79-020, filed 7/11/77; Order 74-24, 296-79-020, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-020, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]

WAC 296-79-030 Guards and guarding. 

For additional guarding requirements see chapter 296-806 WAC, Machine safety.

(1) Safeguarding specific areas, machines or conditions. Certain equipment, tools, machines, and areas present definite hazards and must be safeguarded by compliance with the following requirements:

(a) Broke shredders. Cutting heads must be completely enclosed except for opening at feed side sufficient only to permit entry of stock. The enclosure must be:

  • Bolted or locked in place, and

  • Of solid material or with mesh or other openings not exceeding 1/2 inch.

(b) Stitching or sewing machine. Carton or bag stitching machines must be properly safeguarded to prevent persons from coming in contact with the stitching head and other pinch or nip points.

(c) Beaters and pulpers.

(i) A guardrail of standard height must be installed when the top edge of vessels or tubs is less than standard height guardrails above the floor or operator's platform. If necessary for the protection of the person feeding equipment, an intermediate guardrail or other suitable protection shall be installed.

(ii) Beater rolls must be provided with covers.

(d) First dryer. A permanent guard or apron guard, or both, must be installed to protect workers from any exposed ingoing nip of the first dryer drum in each section if the area is accessible to workers while the dryer is in operation.

(e) Floor and drain openings. Floor and drain openings in walkways and general work areas must be covered with material or gratings with openings no larger than 2" in the narrow dimension.

(f) Mechanical devices to dump chip cars, trucks or trailers:

  • When using mechanical equipment to elevate the front end of the chip containers for dumping into a hopper, the shear area between the floor and the elevated section must be safeguarded.

  • The pit area must be adequately safeguarded or barricaded.

  • Safeguards must be installed around the exposed sides of a chip hopper.

(2) Replacing guards. All permanent guards must be replaced or adequate temporary safeguards provided before a machine is put into operation.

(3) Protection from moving materials. When material, such as chunks, slivers, cants, or logs could be thrown or flipped by a saw, barker, or other machines, adequate barricades, screens, netting, or other safeguards must be provided and maintained.

(4) Protection for areas where guards are impractical. When normal guarding is impractical:

  • The hazard must be reduced to a minimum by use of safety chains, lifelines, signs or other reasonable means, and

  • Areas which present a hazard which cannot be reasonably safeguarded must be identified by use of paint or other materials.

(5) Knives and scissors.

(a) Knives used for chip or hog fuel machines, or guillotine cutters, must be secured in properly constructed containers during transportation.

(b) Workers must be furnished properly designed and constructed sheaths for safely carrying knives and scissors used for cutting or trimming pulp and paper.

(c) Tables where paper is being cut must be equipped with sheaths or shelves for safe storage of knives and scissors.

(d) Sharp edged slitter knives subject to accidental contact must be effectively guarded. Carriers must be provided and used when transporting or carrying sharp edged slitter knives.

(e) Hand knives and sharpening steels used in paper preparation, must be provided with guards at the junction of the handle and the blade. Utility knives with blade exposure two and one-half inches or less are exempted from this requirement.

(6) Safeguard for foot operated treadle switch used to activate power driven equipment. Foot operated treadle switches used for activation of power driven equipment must be protected by a stirrup type guard or equivalent protection must be provided to prevent accidental activation.

(7) Automatic pressure actuated stopping devices. Hand fed machines and other moving equipment which create shear or pinch points which cannot be reasonably guarded may be safeguarded by the installation of pressure activated bars or sensing devices which, when contacted, will automatically stop the machine or equipment.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 04-14-028 (Order 01-12), § 296-79-030, filed 06/29/04, effective 01/01/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 99-16-083 (Order 99-11), 296-79-030, filed 08/03/99, effective 11/03/99. Statutory Authority: Order 74-24, 296-79-030, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-030, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]

WAC 296-79-040 Fire protection, ignition sources and means of egress. 

For fire protection, ignition source, and means of egress requirements see chapter 296-24 WAC, Parts G-1 and G-3, WAC 296-800-300 of the safety and health core rules, and chapter 296-811 WAC, Fire bridages.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 06-01-073 (Order 05-20, § 296-79-040, filed 12/20/05, effective 03/01/06. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 99-16-083 (Order 99-11), 296-79-040, filed 08/03/99, effective 11/03/99. Statutory Authority: Order 74-24, 296-79-040, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-040, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]

WAC 296-79-050 Personal protection clothing and equipment. 

See WAC 296-800-160 for additional personal protective equipment requirements.

(1) Rings or other jewelry that could create a hazard should not be worn by employees while in the performance of their work.

(2) Protective footwear:

  • Employees who work in areas where there is a possibility of foot injury due to falling or rolling objects must wear safety type footwear.

  • Employers will supply shoe guards and toe protectors.

  • Employers must also make safety shoes available for purchase by employees at not more than actual cost to the employer.

(3) Calks or other suitable footwear that will afford reasonable protection from slipping must be:

  • Worn while working on logs.

  • Made available at not more than actual cost to the employer.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 01-11-038 (Order 99-36), 296-79-050, filed 05/09/01, effective 09/01/01 Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 99-16-083 (Order 99-11), 296-79-050, filed 08/03/99, effective 11/03/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), 296-79-050, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), 296-79-050, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 83-24-013 (Order 83-34), 296-79-050, filed 11/30/83; 82-13-045 (Order 82-22), 296-79-050, filed 6/11/82; Order 74-24, 296-79-050, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-050, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]

WAC 296-79-070 Illumination.

(1) Illumination required. Lighting that is adequately adjusted to provide a margin of safety for all work tasks must be provided and maintained.

(a) The minimum level of task lighting for all indoor activities must be an average of ten-foot candles measured thirty inches above the floor or at the task.

(b) The minimum level of task lighting for all outdoor activities must be an average of five-foot candles measured thirty inches above the working surface or at the task.

(2) If general lighting is not provided throughout the work area, the employer must provide illumination which is adequately adjusted to provide visibility of nearby objects that might be potential hazards or to see to operate emergency control or other equipment. The minimum level of nontask lighting for all indoor and outdoor activities must be an average of three-foot candles measured thirty inches above the floor or working surface.

Note: This section establishes minimum levels of illumination for safety purposes only. Guidelines pertaining to optimal levels of lighting and illumination may be found in practice for Industrial Lighting, ANSI/IES RP7-1979. The minimum levels specified in subsections (1) and (2) of this section represent averages with the lowest level in an area to be no less than fifty percent of the indicated value.

(3) Emergency or secondary lighting system required.

(a) There must be an emergency or secondary lighting system that can be actuated immediately upon failure of the normal power supply system. The emergency or secondary lighting system must provide illumination in the following areas:

  • Wherever it is necessary for workers to remain at their machine or station to shut down equipment in case of power failure.

  • At stairways and passageways or aisleways used by workers as an emergency exit in case of power failure.

(b) Emergency lighting facilities must be checked at least every 30 days for mechanical defects. Defective equipment must be given priority for repair schedule.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 99-16-083 (Order 99-11), 296-79-070, filed 08/03/99, effective 11/03/99. Statutory Authority: Order 74-24, 296-79-070, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-070, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]

WAC 296-79-080 Elevators, manlifts and other lifting devices.

(1) All elevators, manlifts or other lifting devices must be installed and maintained in conformity with the requirements specified in the Washington state elevator laws and regulations adopted by the elevator section of the department of Labor & Industries.

(2) Inspection of elevators, etc., for acid towers.

(a) Outside elevators must be inspected daily during winter months when ice materially affects safety.

(b) Elevators, runways, stairs, etc., for acid towers must be inspected monthly for defects that may occur because of exposure to acid or corrosive gases.

(3) Respirators on elevators. Elevators located in areas where exposure to potentially harmful concentrations of toxic substances may occur must be equipped with an adequate supply of respirators to protect the maximum number of passengers.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 99-16-083 (Order 99-11), 296-79-080, filed 08/03/99, effective 11/03/99. Order 74-24, 296-79-080, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-080, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]

WAC 296-79-090 Electrical equipment and distribution. 

All electrical installations and electrical utilization equipment must comply with chapter 296-24 WAC, Part L, and WAC 296-800-280.

(1) Operator controlled devices. Push buttons, selector switches, remote control switches, automatic circuit activating devices, and other control circuit type devices must be marked to indicate their function and the equipment they control.

(2) Posting equipment automatically activated or remotely controlled. If it will create a hazard to personnel, equipment which is automatically activated or remotely controlled must be posted, warning persons that machine may start automatically.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 01-11-038 (Order 99-36), 296-79-090, filed 05/09/01, effective 09/01/01 Statutory Authority: Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 99-16-083 (Order 99-11), 296-79-090, filed 08/03/99, effective 11/03/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), 296-79-090, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91; Order 74-24, 296-79-090, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-090, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]

WAC 296-79-100 Floors, platforms, stairways, ladders, loading docks. 

See chapter 296-24 WAC, Part J, and chapter 296-800 WAC.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 01-11-038 (Order 99-36), 296-79-100, filed 05/09/01, effective 09/01/01 Statutory Authority: Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 99-16-083 (Order 99-11), 296-79-100, filed 08/03/99, effective 11/03/99. Statutory Authority: Order 74-24, 296-79-100, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-100, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]

WAC 296-79-110 Elevated runways and ramps used by vehicles.

(1) Runways and ramps must:

(a) Be cleated, grooved, rough surfaced, or covered with a material that will minimize the danger of skidding.

(b) Not have a maximum incline exceeding 20 from horizontal if used for wheeled equipment.

(2) Guarding exposed sides:

  • Elevated ramps or runways used for the travel of wheeled equipment must have exposed sides guarded with a substantial bull rail or shear rail of sufficient height to prevent wheeled equipment from going over the rail.

  • If elevated ramps or runways are used by pedestrians, standard guardrails must be installed on runways wherever the height exceeds 4 feet above the adjacent area except where used for loading or unloading purposes.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 99-16-083 (Order 99-11), 296-79-110, filed 08/03/99, effective 11/03/99. Order 74-24, 296-79-110, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-110, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]

WAC 296-79-120 Scaffolds, construction, use and maintenance. 

See Scaffolds, chapter 296-874 WAC.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 01-11-038 (Order 99-36), 296-79-120, filed 05/09/01, effective 09/01/01 Statutory Authority: Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 99-16-083 (Order 99-11), 296-79-120, filed 08/03/99, effective 11/03/99. Order 74-24, 296-79-120, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-120, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]

WAC 296-79-130 Crossovers, aisles, passages. 

See chapter 296-24 WAC, Part D, for additional requirements for aisles and passages.

(1) Clearances to be marked. Low clearance areas under conveyors which could present a hazard to mobile equipment operations must be identified by a suitable means, such as signs, contrasting colors, or tell-tales.

(2) Crossovers over obstructions in passageways. Crossovers must be provided where employees are required to cross over transmission drive lines or other permanent obstructions in passageways or walkways.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 99-16-083 (Order 99-11), 296-79-130, filed 08/03/99, effective 11/03/99. Order 74-24, 296-79-130, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-130, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]

WAC 296-79-140 Installation, inspection, and maintenance of pipes, piping systems, and hoses.

(1) Definitions applicable to this section.

Hazardous material system” - any system within the following classifications:

Flammable or explosive - any system containing materials which are hazardous because they are easily ignited and create a fire or explosion hazard, defined by NFPA as Class I liquids;

Chemically active or toxic - any system containing material which offers corrosion or toxic hazard in itself or can be productive of harmful gases upon release, defined by NFPA 704M as Class 3 and 4 materials;

Thermally hazardous - any system above 130F which exposes persons to potential thermal burns;

Pressurized - any gaseous system above 200 psig or liquid system above 500 psig.

Piping system” - any fixed piping, either rigid pipe or flexible hose, including all fittings and valves, in either permanent or temporary application.

(2) Design and installation. All new piping systems intended to be used in hazardous material service must be designed and installed in accordance with applicable provisions of the ASME Code for Pressure Piping or in accordance with applicable provisions of ANSI B31.1-1995 through B31.8-1995

(3) Inspection and maintenance.

(a) The employer must develop a formal program of installation inspections and maintenance for all hazardous material piping systems. The program must be:

  • Based on sound maintenance engineering principle, and

  • Demonstrate due consideration for the manufacturing specifications of the pipe, hose, valves and fittings, the ambient environment of the installation and the corrosive or abrasive effect of the material handled within the system.

(b) Type and frequency of tests and/or inspections and selection of inspection sites must be adequate to give indications that minimum safe design operating tolerances are maintained. The tests may include visual or nondestructive methods.

(4) Inspection records.

(a) Results of inspections and/or tests must be maintained as a record for each system. Portions of systems that are buried or enclosed in permanent structures in such a manner as to prevent exposure to employees even in the event of a failure, may be exempted from the inspection requirements only:

  • Past records may be discarded provided the current inspection report and the immediately preceding two reports are maintained.

  • When a system is replaced, a new record must be established and all past records may be discarded.

(b) Upon request the records for each system must be made available for review by the department of Labor & Industries.

(5) Systems or sections of systems found to be below the minimum design criteria requirements for the current service must be repaired or replaced with component parts and methods which equal the requirements for new installations.

(6) Identification of piping systems.

(a)  USAS A13.1-1956, “Scheme for Identification of Piping Systems” must be followed.

Positive identification of a piping system content:

  • Must have a lettered legend giving the name of the content in full or abbreviated form, or a commonly used identification system.

  • Must be made and maintained at suitable intervals and at valves, fittings, and on both sides of walls or floors as needed.

  • May have arrows to indicate the direction of flow.

  • May provide necessary supplementary information such as hazard of use. This may be done by additional legend or by color applied to the entire piping system or as colored bands. Legends may be placed on colored bands.

  • Examples of legend which may give both positive identification and supplementary information regarding hazards or use are:

Ammonia

Hazardous liquid or gas

Chlorine

Hazardous liquid or gas

Chlorine dioxide

Hazardous liquid or gas

Sulphur dioxide

Hazardous gas

Liquid caustic

Hazardous liquid

Liquid sulphur

Hazardous liquid

Sulphuric acid

Hazardous liquid

Sodium chlorate

When dry, danger of fire or explosion

Note: Manual L-1, published by Chemical Manufacturers Association Inc., us a valuable guide in respect to supplementary legend:

  • When color, applied to the entire piping system or as colored bands, is used to give supplementary information it should conform to the following:
CLASSIFICATION

PREDOMINANT COLOR

F--Fire-protection equipment

Red

D--Dangerous materials

Yellow (or Orange)

S--Safe materials

Green (or the achromatic colors, white, black, gray or aluminum)

and, when required, P--Protective materials

Bright blue

(b) When legend systems are used, legend boards showing the color and identification scheme in use must be prominently displayed at each plant. They must be located so that employees who may be exposed to hazardous material piping systems will have a frequent reminder of the identification program.

(c) All employees who work in the area of hazardous material piping systems must be given training in the color and identification scheme in use.

(7) Steam hoses. Steam hoses must be specifically designed to safely carry steam at any pressures to which they may be subjected.

[Statutory Authority:  RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050.  02-12-098 (Order 00-20), 296-79140, filed 06/05/02, effective 08/01/02.  Statutory Authority:  RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 99-16-083 (Order 99-11), 296-79-140, filed 08/03/99, effective 11/03/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-13-053 (Order 81-9), 296-79-140, filed 6/17/81. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.240, and chapters 43.22 and 42.30 RCW. 81-03-007 (Order 80-31), 296-79-140, filed 1/8/81; Order 74-24, 296-79-140, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-140, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]

WAC 296-79-150 Powered industrial trucks and other equipment. 

Additional requirements on mobile equipment and lift trucks are in chapter 296-24 WAC, Part D.

(1) The operator of a power-driven vehicle must test the brakes, steering gear, lights, horn, warning devices, clutches, etc., before operating vehicle.

(2) Control levers of lift trucks, front end loaders, or similar types of equipment must not be operated except when the operator is in the proper operating position.

(3) No person may be permitted to ride on a powered hand truck unless it is so designed by the manufacturer. A limit switch must be on the operating handle--30 degrees each way from a 45-degree angle up and down.

(4) Employees must not work below the raised bed of a dump truck, raised buckets of front end loaders, raised blades of tractors or in similar positions without blocking the equipment in a manner that will prevent it from falling.

(5) Reporting suspected defects. If, in the opinion of the operator, a power-driven vehicle is unsafe, the operator must report the suspected defect immediately to the person in charge. Any defect that would make the vehicle unsafe to operate under existing conditions will be cause to take the vehicle out of service and it must not be put back into use until it has been made safe.

(6) Vehicle operators must have a reasonably unobstructed view of the direction of travel, or, where this is not possible, the operator must be directed by a person or by a safe guidance means or device. Where practical, mirrors must be installed at blind corners or intersections that will allow operators to observe oncoming traffic.

(7) Vehicles in congested areas must operate with a warning light.

(8) Passengers must not be permitted to ride with legs or arms extending outside any vehicle nor must they be permitted to ride unless a passenger seat or other protective device is provided.

(9) Guard on operator's platform. Every power truck operated from an end platform or standing position must be:

Equipped with a platform extending beyond the operator's position, and

Strong enough to withstand a compression load equal to the weight of the loaded vehicle applied along the longitudinal axis of the truck with the outermost projection of the platform against the flat vertical surface.

(10) Cleaning vehicles. All vehicles must be kept free of excessive accumulations of dust and grease that may present a hazard.

(11) Vehicles must be controlled manually while being pushed or towed except when a tow bar is used. Pushing of vehicles or railroad cars with the forks or clamps of a lift truck is prohibited.

(12) Aisles or passageways should be at least three feet wider than the widest vehicle or load traveling the aisle or passageway. When this clearance cannot be maintained, adequate precautions must be taken.

(13) The forks, clamps, or attachments of lift trucks must be kept as low as possible while the vehicle is moving.

(14) The hoisting of personnel by lift trucks must meet the requirements in WAC 296-24-230.

(15) Exhaust systems on lift trucks and jitneys shall be constructed to discharge either within 20 inches from the floor or 84 inches or more above the floor.

(16) Mobile equipment with an enclosed cab must be provided with an escape hatch or other method of exit in case the regular exit cannot be used.

(17) Suitable methods must be used or devices installed which will prevent the trailer from tipping while being loaded or unloaded.

(18) Whenever vehicles using LP gas as a fuel are parked overnight or stored for extended periods of time indoors, with the fuel container in place, the service valve of the fuel container must be closed.

(19) The use of spinners on steering wheels must be prohibited unless an anti-kick device is installed or the equipment has a hydraulic steering system.

(20) Rolls transported with a grab or clamp attachment must be carried with the core in a vertical position.

(21) When traveling empty with a grab or clamp attachment, the jaws or blades of those attachments must remain within the running lines of the lift truck.

(22) When transporting two or more rolls with a roll grab attachment, the bottom roll will have at least sixty percent of the grab attachment on it.

(23) When transporting two or more rolls or bales with a grab or clamp attachment, there must be no rolls or bales unsecured if there is risk of part or all of the load shifting or falling.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 99-16-083 (Order 99-11), 296-79-150, filed 08/03/99, effective 11/03/99. Order 74-24, 296-79-150, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-150, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]

WAC 296-79-160 Requirements for cranes and hoists--See general safety and health standards (chapter 296-24 WAC, Part D). 

Grounding - Where conditions such as corrosive atmospheres, dirt, paint, rust, or other insulating materials prevent reliable metal-to-metal contact for grounding (bridge, wheel and its respective tracks), a separate ground conductor must be provided.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 9916-083 (Order 99-11), 296-79-160, filed 08/03/99, effective 11/03/99. Order 74-24, 296-79-160, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-160, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]

WAC 296-79-170 Requirements for crawler and truck cranes.

(1) Boom length indicated. The length must be plainly marked on each boom section of a mobile crane having a sectioned boom.

(2) Radius or boom angle indicator. A radius or boom angle indicator must be installed where it is readily visible to the operator's normal operating position on all cranes having a movable working boom.

(3) Safety device for light fixtures. Any light fixtures attached to crane boom or machinery house must have a safety strap or other device attached which will prevent the fixture from falling.

(4) Boom stops. Boom stops must be:

  • Installed to govern the upward travel of the boom to a safe limit.

  • Of adequate strength to prevent the boom from traveling past the vertical position.

(5) Controls marked. Crane operating controls must be marked or an explanation of the controls' functions must be posted in full view of the operator.

(6) Locking hydraulic outriggers. Hydraulic outriggers must be:

  • Equipped with a pilot operated check valve or

  • Installed with a mechanical lock which will prevent outriggers from retracting in case of failure of the hydraulic system.

(7) Top of boom painted. The top six feet of the boom or jib must be painted bright yellow or other bright contrasting color if the boom is yellow.

(8) Warning devices. All cranes must be equipped with a suitable warning device such as a horn or whistle.

(9) Hook safety device. All hooks must be equipped with a safety device or other effective means must be used to prevent accidental unhooking of the load.

(10) Counterweight limited. The amount of crane counterweight must not exceed the maximum amount specified by the crane manufacturer.

(11) Use proper size wire rope for sheaves. The size and diameter of sheaves and wire rope must be compatible and follow the recommendations by the manufacturer, published by the Wire Rope Institute or other acceptable engineering practices.

(12) Loading or unloading gear. Unloading gear such as grapples, tongs, and buckets, must not be left suspended when not in use or whenever the machine in unattended.

(13) No one under load. Personnel must not position themselves under crane loads and such loads must not be carried over workers.

(14) Operating clearance from stationary objects. Where the area is accessible to workers:

  • A distance of 30 inches must be maintained between the outermost part of a revolving crane and any stationary object within the swing radius of the crane or

  • The hazardous area must be temporarily guarded or barricaded.

(15) See WAC 296-24-960 when working around energized lines.

(16) Operators must avoid contacting overhead obstructions which may damage the boom or adversely affect stability. In instances where the operator may have difficulty in observing clearances, a signal person must be stationed where they can observe clearances and signal the operator.

(17) Safe travel across thoroughfares or railroad tracks:

  • When moving cranes, shovels or similar types of equipment across thoroughfares or railroad tracks and the operator does not have clear vision of approaching traffic, a flagperson must be used.
  • The flag person must be stationed where the equipment operator can be signaled and other traffic can be controlled.

(18) Only a designated member of the crew may give signals to the crane operator. Exception: Anyone may give an emergency stop signal.

(19) Standard hand signals. When using visual signals, standard hand signals as illustrated, must be used for directing crane operators.

Crawler, Locomotive, and Truck Cranes-Standard Hand Signals

Overhead and Gantry Cranes - Standard Hand Signals

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 99-16-083 (Order 99-11), 296-79-170, filed 08/03/99, effective 11/03/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-13-053 (Order 81-9), 296-79-170, filed 6/17/81. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.240, and chapters 43.22 and 42.30 RCW. 81-03-007 (Order 80-31), 296-79-170, filed 1/8/81; Order 74-24, 296-79-170, filed 5/6/74; Order 70-6, 296-79-170, filed 7/10/70, effective 8/10/70.]

Chapter 296-79 Continued

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