Safety Standards for Agriculture


Guarding Power Transmission Machinery
Chapter 296-307 WAC, Part P

 

WAC

296-307-280 Guarding power transmission machinery.
296-307-28002
What power transmission belts are covered by this section?
296-307-28004
What does “guarded by location” mean?
296-307-28006
What general requirements apply to machine guarding?
296-307-28014
What requirements apply to prime-mover guards?
296-307-28016
What requirements apply to guarding shafting?
296-307-28018
What requirements apply to guarding pulleys?
296-307-28020
What requirements apply to guarding horizontal belt, rope, and chain drivers?
296-307-28022
What requirements apply to guarding overhead horizontal belt, rope, and chain drivers?
296-307-28024
What requirements apply to guarding vertical and inclined belts?
296-307-28026
What requirements apply to guarding cone-pulley belts?
296-307-28028
What requirements apply to guarding belt tighteners?
296-307-28030
What requirements apply to guarding gears, sprockets, and chains?
296-307-28032
What requirements apply to guarding friction drives?
296-307-28034
What requirements apply to guarding keys, set screws, and other projections?
296-307-28036
What requirements apply to guarding collars and couplings?
296-307-28038
Must self-lubricating bearing be used?
296-307-28040
What requirements apply to guarding clutches, cutoff couplings, and clutch pulleys?
296-307-28042 What requirements apply to guarding belt shifters, clutches, shippers, poles, perches, and fasteners?
296-307-28044
What materials must be used for standard guards?
296-307-28046
How must standards guards be manufactures?
296-307-28048
What requirements apply to disk, shield, and U-guards?
296-307-28050
What materials must be used for guards?
296-307-28052
When may wood guards be used?
296-307-28054
What materials may be used for guarding horizontal overhead belts?
296-307-28056
What clearance must be maintained between guards and power transmission machinery?
296-307-28058
How must overhead rope and chain-drive guards be constructed?
296-307-28060
What materials must be used for guardrails and toeboards?
296-307-28062
How must shafting be maintained?
296-307-28064
How must pulleys be maintained?
296-307-28066
How must belts be maintained?
296-307-28068
How must other equipment be maintained?
296-307-290
Auger conveying equipment.
296-307-29005
What requirements apply to auger conveying equipment?
296-307-29010
What requirements apply to auger conveying equipment manufactured after October 25, 1976?
296-307-300
Guarding farmstead equipment.
296-307-30003
What does this section cover?
296-307-30006
How must power takeoff shafts of farmstead equipment be guarded?
296-307-30009
How must other power transmission components of farmstead equipment be guarded?
296-307-30012
How must functional components of farmstead equipment be guarded?
296-307-30015
When may guards be removed on farmstead equipment?
296-307-30018
What requirements apply to electrical control for maintaining and servicing farmstead equipment?
296-307-30021
What additional guarding requirements apply to farmstead equipment?

WAC 296-307-280 Guarding power transmission machinery.

Recodified as 296-307-280. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-280, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-28002 What power transmission belts are covered by this section?

WAC 296-307-280 covers all types and shapes of power transmission belts.

Exception: The following power transmission belts are exempt from WAC 296-307-280 when operating at 250 feet per minute or less:

(1) Flat belts that are one inch wide or less.

(2) Flat belts that are 2" wide or less and are free from metal lacings or fasteners.

(3) Round belts that are 1/2" in diameter or less.

(4) Single strand V-belts that are 13/32" wide or less.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13), 296-307-28002, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99. [Recodified as 296-307-28002. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-28002, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-28004 What does “guarded by location” mean? 

Guarded by location” means that the location of a component eliminates potential hazards. A component seven feet or more above a working surface is considered guarded by location.

[Recodified as 296-307-28004. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-28004, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-28006 What general requirements apply to machine guarding?

(1) All power transmission components must be guarded according to the requirements of this section.

(2) You must protect employees from coming into contact with moving machinery parts by:

(a) A guard or shield or guarding by location; or

(b) A guardrail or fence whenever a guard or shield or guarding by location is infeasible.

(3) Strength and design of guards.

(a) Guards must be designed and located to prevent inadvertent contact with the hazard.

(b) Unless otherwise specified, each guard and its supports must be strong enough to withstand the force that a 250 pound person would exert leaning on or falling against the guard.

(c) Guards must be securely fastened to the equipment or building.

(4) A guard or shield on stationary equipment must be provided at the mesh point or pinch point where the chain or belt contacts the sprocket or pulley.

(5) Machines that will throw stock, material, or objects must be covered or provided with a device designed and constructed to minimize this action. (Machines such as rip saws, rotary mowers and beaters, rotary tillers are included in this classification.)

(6) For requirements relating to the control of hazardous energy (lockout-tagout) see WAC 296-307-320.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13), 296-307-28006, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99. [Recodified as 296-307-28006. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-28006, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-28014 What requirements apply to prime-mover guards? 

Flywheels” include flywheels, balance wheels, and flywheel pulleys mounted and revolving on crankshaft of engine or other shafting.

Prime movers” include steam, gas, oil, and air engines, motors, steam and hydraulic turbines, and other equipment used as a source of power.

(1) Unless guarded by location, flywheels must be guarded according to the following requirements:

(a) Guard enclosures are made of sheet, perforated, or expanded metal, or woven wire.

(b) Guard rails are between 15 and 20 inches from the rim. When a flywheel extends into a pit or is within 12 inches of the floor, a standard toeboard is provided.

(c) When the upper rim of a flywheel extends through a working floor, it is surrounded by a guardrail and toeboard.

(d) Exception: When a flywheel with a smooth rim 5 feet or less in diameter cannot be guarded by the above methods, you must guard by meeting the following requirements:

On the exposed side, cover the flywheel spokes with a disk that makes a smooth surface and edge, and provides for inspection. You may leave an open space, less than 4 inches wide, between the outside edge of the disk and the rim of the wheel, to turn the wheel over. If you use a disk, keys or other projections left uncovered by the projections shall be cut off or covered.

Note: This exception does not apply to flywheels with solid web centers.

(e) At the flywheel of a gas or oil engine, you may provide an adjustable guard for starting the engine or for running adjustment. A slot opening for a jack bar is permitted.

(f) For flywheels above working areas, you must install guards that are strong enough to hold the weight of the flywheel if the shaft or wheel mounting fails.

(2) Cranks and connecting rods, when exposed to contact, must be guarded according to WAC 296-307-28046 and 296-307-28048, or by a guardrail according to WAC 296-307-28060.

(3) Tail rods or extension piston rods must be guarded according WAC 296-307-28046 to and 296-307-28048, or by a guardrail on the sides and end, with a clearance of between 15 and 20 inches when rod is fully extended.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13), 296-307-28014, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99. [Recodified as 296-307-28014. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-28014, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

 

WAC 296-307-28016 What requirements apply to guarding shafting? 

Revolving shafts must be guarded by a standard safeguard unless guarded by location.

(1) All shafting must be secured against excessive end movement.

(2) Guarding horizontal shafting.

(a) Unless guarded by location, all exposed parts of horizontal shafting, must be enclosed in a guard that covers the shafting completely or by a trough that covers the sides and top or sides and bottom of the shafting as location requires.

(b) Shafting under bench machines must be enclosed by a guard that covers the shafting completely or by a trough that covers the sides and top or sides and bottom of the shafting as location requires. The sides of the trough must extend to at least 6 inches from the underside of table. If shafting is near the floor, the trough must extend to at least 6 inches from the floor. In every case, the sides of trough must extend at least 2 inches beyond the shafting or projection.

Exception: Maintenance runways are exempt from this requirement. "Maintenance runway" means any permanent runway or platform used for oiling, maintenance, running adjustment, or repair work, but not for passageway.

(3) Unless guarded by location, vertical and inclined shafting must be enclosed according to WAC 296-307-28046 and 296-307-28050 through WAC 296-307-28060.

Exception: Maintenance runways are exempt from this requirement.

(4) Projecting shaft ends.

(a) Projecting shaft ends must have a smooth edge and end and must not project more than one-half the diameter of the shaft unless guarded by nonrotating caps or safety sleeves.

(b) Unused keyways must be filled up or covered.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13), 296-307-28016, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99. [Recodified as 296-307-28016. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-28016, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-28018 What requirements apply to guarding pulleys?

(1) Unless guarded by location, pulleys must be guarded according to WAC 296-307-28046 and 296-307-28050 through WAC 296-307-28060. Pulleys serving as balance wheels (e.g., punch presses) on which the point of contact between belt and pulley is more than 6 feet 6 inches from the floor or platform may be guarded with a disk covering the spokes.

(2) If the distance to the nearest fixed pulley, clutch, or hanger is equal to or less than the width of the belt, then you must provide a guide to prevent the belt from leaving the pulley on the side where insufficient clearance exists.

(3) Where there are overhanging pulleys on line, jack, or countershafts with no bearing between the pulley and the outer end of the shaft, you should provide a guide to prevent the belt from running off the pulley.

(4) Pulleys with cracks, or pieces broken out of rims are prohibited.

(5) Pulleys must be designed and balanced for the operating speed.

(6) Composition or laminated wood pulleys must not be installed where they are likely to deteriorate.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13), 296-307-28018, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99. [Recodified as 296-307-28018. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-28018, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-28020 What requirements apply to guarding horizontal belt, rope, and chain drives? 

Belts” include all power transmission belts, such as flat belts, round belts, V-belts, etc., unless otherwise specified.

(1) Where both runs of horizontal belts are 7 feet or less from the floor level, the guard must extend to at least 15 inches above the belt or to a standard height. (See Table P-1.)

Exception: Where both runs of a horizontal belt are 42 inches or less from the floor, the belt must be fully enclosed according to WAC 296-307-28046 and 296-307-28050 through WAC 296-307-28060.

(2) In power development rooms, a guardrail may be used instead of the guard.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13), 296-307-28020, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99. [Recodified as 296-307-28020. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-28020, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-28022 What requirements apply to guarding overhead horizontal belt, rope, and chain drives?

(1) Unless guarded by location, overhead horizontal belts must be guarded on the sides and bottom according to WAC 296-307-28054.

(2) Unless guarded by location, horizontal overhead belts must be guarded for their entire length when:

(a) Located over passageways or work places and traveling 1,800 feet or more per minute.

(b) The center to center distance between pulleys is 10 feet or more.

(c) The belt is 8 inches wide or more.

(3) Where the upper and lower runs of horizontal belts are located so that employees can pass between them, the passage must be either:

(a) Completely barred according to WAC 296-307-28046 and 296-307-28050 through WAC 296-307-28060; or

(b) In a passage that employees must use, there must be a platform over the lower run guarded on either side by a railing that is completely filled in with wire mesh or other filler, or by a solid barrier. The upper run must be guarded to prevent contact by the employee or by objects carried by the employee.

(4) Overhead chain and link belt drives must be guarded according to the same requirements as overhead horizontal belts.

(5) American or continuous system rope drives located where the condition of the rope (particularly the splice) cannot be constantly and conveniently observed, must have an alarm (preferably electric-bell type) that will warn when the rope begins to fray.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13), 296-307-28022, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99. [Recodified as 296-307-28022. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-28022, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

 

WAC 296-307-28024 What requirements apply to guarding vertical and inclined belts?

(1) Vertical and inclined belts must be guarded according to WAC 296-307-28044 and 296-307-28050 through WAC 296-307-28060.

(2) All guards for inclined belts must provide a minimum clearance of 7 feet between belt and floor at any point outside of the guard.

(3) A vertical or inclined belt may be guarded with a nip-point belt and pulley guard, if it is:

(a) 2-1/2 inches wide or less;

(b) Running at a speed of less than one thousand feet per minute; and

(c) Free from metal lacings or fastenings.

Nip-point belt and pulley guard” means a device that encloses the pulley and has rounded or rolled edge slots through which the belt passes.

(4) Vertical belts running over a lower pulley more than seven feet above floor or platform must be guarded according to the same requirements as horizontal overhead belts, if the belt is:

(a) Located over passageways or work places and traveling 1,800 feet or more per minute;

(b) Eight inches wider or more.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13), 296-307-28024, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99.

[Recodified as 296-307-28024. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-28024, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-28026 What requirements apply to guarding cone-pulley belts?

(1) The cone belt and pulley must have a belt shifter that adequately guards the nip point of the belt and pulley. If the frame of the belt shifter does not adequately guard the nip point of the belt and pulley, the nip point must be protected by a vertical guard in front of the pulley that extends at least to the top of the largest step of the cone.

Belt shifter” means a device for mechanically shifting belts from tight to loose pulleys or vice versa, or for shifting belts on cones of speed pulleys.

(2) If the belt is endless or laced with rawhide laces, and no belt shifter is used, the belt may be guarded according to the following:

(a) The nip point of the belt and pulley is protected by a nip point guard in front of the cone;

(b) The guard extends at least to the top of the largest step of the cone; and

(c) The guard is formed to show the contour of the cone.

(3) If the cone is less than 3 feet from the floor or working platform, the cone pulley and belt must be guarded to a height of 3 feet regardless of whether the belt is endless or laced with rawhide.

[Recodified as 296-307-28026. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-28026, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-28028 What requirements apply to guarding belt tighteners?

(1) Suspended counterbalanced belt tighteners and all components must be substantially constructed and securely fastened. The bearings must be securely capped. You must provide a mechanism to prevent the tightener from falling in case the belt breaks.

(2) Unless guarded by location, suspended counterweights must be encased to prevent accident.

(3) Belt tighteners used for starting and stopping machinery, unless held by gravity in the “off” or “out of service” position, must have a mechanism that will hold the belt tightener away from the belt when not in use. The mechanism must automatically grip, latch or otherwise fasten itself to and hold the belt tightener in “off” or “out of service” position until released by hand.

[Recodified as 296-307-28028. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-28028, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-28030 What requirements apply to guarding gears, sprockets, and chains?

(1) Gears must be guarded by one of the following methods:

(a) A complete enclosure; or

(b) A standard guard according to WAC 296-307-28050 through 296-307-28060, at least 7 feet high extending 6 inches above the mesh point of the gears; or

(c) A band guard covering the face of gear. The guard must have flanges extended inward beyond the root of the teeth on the exposed side or sides. If a part of the train of gears guarded by a band guard is less than 6 feet from the floor, the gear must be guarded by a disk guard or by a complete enclosure at least 6 feet tall.

(2) Hand-operated gears used only to adjust hand-powered machine parts may be unguarded. However, we recommend guarding these gears.

(3) Unless guarded by location, all sprocket wheels and chains must be enclosed. Where the drive extends over other machine or working areas, you must provided protection against falling parts.

Exception: This section does not apply to manually operated sprockets.

(4) When gears require frequent oiling, you must provide openings with hinged or sliding self-closing covers. All points not readily accessible must have oil feed tubes if lubricant is added while machinery is in motion.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13), 296-307-28030, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99. [Recodified as 296-307-28030. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-28030, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-28032 What requirements apply to guarding friction drives? 

When exposed to contact, the driving point of all friction drives must be guarded. All arm or spoke friction drives and all web friction drives with holes in the web must be entirely enclosed. When exposed to contact, all projecting belts on friction drives must be guarded.

[Recodified as 296-307-28032. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-28032, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

 

WAC 296-307-28034 What requirements apply to guarding keys, set screws, and other projections?

(1) All projecting keys, set screws, and other projections in revolving parts must be removed, or made flush, or guarded by metal covers.

(2) Projections, such as exposed bolts, keys, or set screws that are part of sprockets, grooved pulleys or pulleys on stationary equipment must be shielded unless guarded by location.

Exception: This section does not apply to keys or set screws within gear or sprocket casings or other enclosures, nor to keys, set screws, or oilcups in hubs of pulleys less than 20 inches in diameter where they are within the plane of the rim of the pulley.

Note: We recommend that you not use projecting set screws or oilcups in any revolving pulley or part of machinery.

[Recodified as 296-307-28034. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-28034, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-28036 What requirements apply to guarding collars and couplings?

(1) All revolving collars, including split collars, must be cylindrical. Screws or bolts used in collars must not project beyond the largest periphery of the collar.

(2) Shaft couplings must be constructed to prevent hazard from bolts, nuts, set screws, or revolving surfaces. Bolts, nuts, and set screws are permitted where they are covered with safety sleeves or where they are used parallel with the shafting and are countersunk or where they do not extend beyond the flange of the coupling.

[Recodified as 296-307-28036. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-28036, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-28038 Must self-lubricating bearings be used? 

We recommend that you use self-lubricating bearings. All drip cups and pans must be securely fastened.

[Recodified as 296-307-28038. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-28038, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-28040 What requirements apply to guarding clutches, cutoff couplings, and clutch pulleys?

(1) Unless guarded by location, clutches, cutoff couplings, or clutch pulleys with projecting parts must be enclosed by a stationary guard constructed according to WAC 296-307-28046. You may use a “U” type guard.

(2) In enginerooms, a guardrail, preferably with toeboard, may be used instead of the guard if the room is only occupied by engineroom attendants.

(3) A bearing support next to a friction clutch or cutoff coupling must have self-lubricating bearings that require infrequent maintenance.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13), 296-307-28040, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99. [Recodified as 296-307-28040. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-28040, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-28042 What requirements apply to guarding belt shifters, clutches, shippers, poles, perches, and fasteners? 

Belt pole” (sometimes called a “belt shipper” or “shipper pole”) means a device used in shifting belts on and off fixed pulleys on line or countershaft where there are no loose pulleys.

(1) Tight and loose pulleys must have a permanent belt shifter with a mechanical means to prevent the belt from creeping from loose to tight pulley.

(2) Belt shifter and clutch handles must be rounded. They must be as far as possible from danger of accidental contact, but within easy reach of the operator. Where belt shifters are not directly over a machine or bench, the handles must be cut off 6 feet 6 inches above floor level.

(3) All belt and clutch shifters of the same type in each shop should move in the same direction to stop machines, i.e., either all right or all left.

Exception: This requirement does not apply to a friction clutch on a countershaft carrying two clutch pulleys with open and crossed belts. In this case the shifter handle has three positions and the machine is at a standstill when the clutch handle is in the neutral or center position.

(4) When belt poles must be used as a substitute for mechanical shifters, they must be big enough for employees to grasp them securely. Poles must be smooth and preferably of straight grain hardwood, such as ash or hickory. The edges of rectangular poles should be rounded. Poles should extend from the top of the pulley to within approximately 40 inches of the floor or working platform.

(5) Where loose pulleys or idlers are not practical, belt perches such as brackets, rollers, etc., must be used to keep idle belts away from the shafts. Perches should be substantial and designed for safe belt shifting.

(6) Belts that must be shifted by hand and belts within seven feet of the floor or working platform that are not guarded according to WAC 296-307-28046 must not be fastened with metal, nor with any other fastening that creates a hazard.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13), 296-307-28042, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99. [Recodified as 296-307-28042. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-28042, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

 

WAC 296-307-28044 What materials must be used for standard guards?

(1) Standard guards must be made of the following materials:

(a) Expanded metal;

(b) Perforated or solid sheet metal;

(c) Wire mesh on a frame of angle iron; or

(d) Iron pipe securely fastened to the floor or the frame of the machine.

(2) Wire mesh should have wires that are securely fastened at every cross point either by welding, soldering, or galvanizing.

Exception: Diamond or square wire mesh made of No. 14 gauge wire, 3/4-inch mesh or heavier is exempt from this requirement.

[Recodified as 296-307-28044. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-28044, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-28046 How must standard guards be manufactured?

(1) Guards must be free from burrs, sharp edges, and sharp corners.

(2) Expanded metal, sheet or perforated metal, and wire mesh must be securely fastened to the frame by one of the following methods:

(a) Rivets or bolts spaced not more than five inches center to center. In case of expanded metal or wire mesh, metal strips or clips must be used to form a washer for rivets or bolts.

(b) Welding to frame every four inches.

(c) Weaving through channel or angle frame, or, if No. 14 gauge 3/4-inch mesh or heavier is used, by bending entirely around rod frames.

(d) To fill openings in pipe railing with expanded metal, wire mesh, or sheet metal, make the filler material into panels with rolled edges or edges bound with “V” or “U” edging. The edging must be of at least No. 24 gauge sheet metal fastened to the panels with bolts or rivets spaced a maximum of 5 inches center to center. The bound panels must be fastened to the railing by sheet-metal clips spaced a maximum of 5 inches center to center.

(e) Diamond or square mesh made of crimped wire fastened into channels, angle iron, or round-iron frames may also be used as a filler in guards. Size of mesh must correspond to Table P-1.

(3) Where guard design requires filler material greater than 12 square feet, additional frame members must be provided to ensure that the panel area is a maximum of 12 square feet.

(4) All joints of framework must be as strong as the material of the frame.

[Recodified as 296-307-28046. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-28046, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-28048 What requirements apply to disk, shield, and U-guards?

(1) A disk guard must have a sheet-metal disk of at least No. 22 gauge fastened by U-bolts or rivets to the spokes of pulleys, flywheels, or gears. To prevent contact with sharp edges of the disk, the edge must be rolled or wired. In all cases, the nuts must have locknuts on the unexposed side of the wheel.

(2) A shield guard must have a frame filled in with wire mesh or expanded, perforated, or solid sheet metal.

(3) If the shield area is less than six square feet, the wire mesh or expanded metal may be fastened in a framework of 3/8-inch solid rod, 3/4-inch by 3/4-inch by 1/8-inch angle iron, or a metal construction of equivalent strength. Metal shields may have edges entirely rolled around a 3/8-inch solid iron rod.

(4) A U-guard consisting of a flat surface with edge members must cover the under surface and lower edge of a belt, multiple chain, or rope drive. It must be constructed of materials specified in Table P-1, and must meet the requirements of WAC 296-307-28054 through 296-307-28058. Edges must be smooth and, if the size of the guard requires, be reinforced by rolling, wiring, or by binding with angle or flat iron.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13), 296-307-28048, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99. [Recodified as 296-307-28048. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-28048, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-28050 What materials must be used for guards? 

The materials and dimensions specified in this section apply to all guards. The materials and dimensions specified are minimum requirements. You may choose to provide stronger guards.

Exception: Horizontal overhead belts, rope, cable, or chain guards more than 7 feet above floor, or platform must meet the requirements outlined in Table P-2.

(1) The framework of all guards must have minimum dimensions of 1-inch by 1-inch by 1/8-inch for angle iron, 3/4-inch inside diameter for metal pipe, or metal construction of equivalent strength.

Exception: Guards thirty inches tall or less with a total surface area of ten square feet or less may have a framework of 3/8-inch solid rod, 3/4-inch by 3/4-inch by 1/8-inch angle iron, or metal construction of equivalent strength. The filling material must correspond to the requirements of Table 1.

(a) All guards must be rigidly braced every 3 feet of their height to some fixed part of machinery or building structure. Where a guard is exposed to contact with moving equipment additional strength may be necessary.

(b) The framework for all guards fastened to the floor or working platform and without other support or bracing must consist of 1-1/2-inch by 1-1/2-inch by 1/8-inch angle iron, metal pipe of 1-1/2-inch inside diameter, or metal construction of equivalent strength. All rectangular guards must have at least four upright frame members that extend to the floor and are securely fastened. Cylindrical guards must have at least three supporting members that extend to the floor.

(2) Where guards are exposed to unusual wear, deterioration, or impact, heavier material and construction should be used to protect against the specific hazards involved.

[Recodified as 296-307-28050. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-28050, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-28052 When may wood guards be used? 

Wood guards may be used where fumes would cause rapid deterioration of metal guards and outdoors where extreme cold or extreme heat make metal guards and railings undesirable.

(1) Wood must be sound, tough, and without loose knots.

(2) Guards must be made of planed lumber not less than 1-inch rough board measure, with rounded edges and corners.

(3) Wood guards must be securely fastened together with wood screws, hardwood dowel pins, bolts, or rivets.

(4) Wood guards must be equal in strength and rigidity to metal guards specified in WAC 296-307-28050 and Table P-1.

Note: Requirements for the construction of standard wood railings are in WAC 296-307-28060.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13), 296-307-28052, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99. [Recodified as 296-307-28052. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-28052, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-28054 What materials may be used for guarding horizontal overhead belts?

(1) Guards for horizontal overhead belts must run the entire length of the belt and follow the line of the pulley to the ceiling or extend to the nearest wall.

Exception: Where belts are located so that it is impractical to extend the guard to wall or ceiling, the guard must completely enclose the top and bottom runs of the belt and the face of pulleys.

(2) The guard and its supporting parts must be securely fastened to the wall or ceiling by gimlet-point lag screws or through bolts. In masonry, expansion bolts must be used. We recommend using bolts placed horizontally through floor beams or ceiling rafters.

(3) When necessary, suitable reinforcement must be provided for the ceiling rafters or overhead floor beams to sustain safely the weight and stress imposed by the guard.

(4) The interior surface of all guards must be smooth and free from projections.

Exception: Where construction demands it, protruding shallow roundhead rivets may be used.

[Recodified as 296-307-28054. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-28054, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

 

WAC 296-307-28056 What clearance must be maintained between guards and power transmission machinery?

(1) Overhead belt guards must be at least one-quarter wider than the belt they protect, with a maximum clearance of 6 inches on each side. Overhead rope-drive and block and roller-chain-drive guards must be at least six inches wider than the drive on each side.

(2) Overhead silent chain-drive guards with the chain held on sprockets must have side clearance of:

(a) On drives of 20-inch centers or less, at least 1/4-inch from the nearest moving chain part, and

(b) On drives of over 20-inch centers, a minimum of 1/2-inch from the nearest moving chain part.

(3) Table 2 gives the sizes of materials and construction specifications for guards for belts that are 10 inches wide or more. All materials for overhead belt guards must be at least the size specified in Table 2 for belts 10 to 14 inches wide, even if the overhead belt is less than 10 inches wide. However, No. 20 gauge sheet metal may be used as a filler on guards for belts less than 10 inches wide. Expanded metal, because of the sharp edges, should not be used as a filler in horizontal belt guards.

(4) For clearance between guards and belts, ropes, or chains see Table P-2.

[Recodified as 296-307-28056. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-28056, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-28058 How must overhead rope and chain-dive guards be constructed?

(1) Overhead-rope and chain-drive guard construction must meet the requirements for overhead-belt guard construction of similar width.

Exception: The filler material must be solid, according to Table P-2, unless fire hazard demands the use of open construction.

(2) A side guard member of the same solid filling material should extend 2 inches above the level of the lower run of the rope or chain drive and 2 inches within the periphery of the pulleys that the guard encloses, forming a trough.

(3) The side filler members should be reinforced on the edges with 1-1/2-inch by 1/4-inch flat steel, riveted to the filling material at 8 inch centers or less. The reinforcing strip should be fastened or bolted to all guard supporting members with at least one 3/8-inch rivet or bolt at each intersection, and the ends should be secured to the ceiling with lag screws or bolts.

(4) The filling material must be fastened to the framework of the guard and the filler supports by 3/16-inch rivets spaced on 4-inch centers. Measure the width of a multiple drive from the outside of the first to the outside of the last rope or chain in the group accommodated by the pulley.

[Recodified as 296-307-28058. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-28058, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-28060 What materials must be used for guardrails and toeboards?

(1) A guardrail used to guard power transmission parts must be 42 inches tall, with a midrail between the top rail and the floor.

(2) Posts must be 8 feet apart or less. They must be permanent and substantial, smooth, and free from protruding nails, bolts, and splinters. If made of pipe, the post must be at least 1-1/4 inches inside diameter. If posts are made of metal shapes or bars, the section must be as strong as posts made of 1-1/2 by 1-1/2 by 3/16-inch angle iron. If posts are made of wood, the posts must be at least 2 by 4 inches. The upper rail must be 2 by 4 inches, or two 1 by 4 inch strips, one at the top and one at the side of the posts. The midrail must be at least 1 by 4 inches.

(3) The rails (metal shapes, metal bars, or wood), should be on the side of the posts that gives the best protection and support. Where panels are fitted with expanded metal or wire mesh (as noted in Table 1) the middle rails may be omitted. Where guard is exposed to contact with moving equipment, additional strength may be necessary.

(4) Toeboards must be at least 4 inches tall, of wood, metal, or metal grill of a maximum 1-inch mesh. Toeboards at flywheel pits should be placed as close to edge of the pit as possible.

TABLE P-1

TABLE OF STANDARDS MATERIALS AND DIMENSIONS

Material

Clearance from moving part at all points (inches)

Largest mesh or opening allowable (inches)

Minimum gauge (U.S. Standard) or thickness (inches)

Minimum height of guard from floor or platform level (feet)

Woven wire

Under 2 2-4 Under 4 4-15

3/8 1/2 1/2 2

No. 16 No. 16 No. 16 No. 12

7 7 7 7

Expanded metal

Under 4 4-15

1/2 2

No. 18 No. 13

7 7

Perforated metal

Under 4 4-15

1/2 2

No. 20 No. 14

7 7

Sheet metal

Under 4 4-15

 

No. 22 No. 22

7 7

Wood or metal strip crossed

Under 4 4-15

3/8 2

Wood 3/4 Metal No. 16 Wood 3/4 Metal No. 16

7 7

Wood or metal strip not crossed

Under 4 4-15

1/2 width 1 width

Wood 3/4 Metal No. 16 Wood 3/4 Metal No. 16

7 7

Standard rail

Min. 15 Max. 20

     

 

TABLE P-2 (pdf)

HORIZONTAL OVERHEAD BELTS, ROPES, AND CHAINS

7 FEET OR MORE ABOVE FLOOR OR PLATFORM

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13), 296-307-28060, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99. [Recodified as 296-307-28060. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-28060, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-28062 How must shafting be maintained?

(1) Shafting must be kept in alignment, and free from rust and excess oil or grease.

(2) Where explosives, explosive dusts, flammable vapors or flammable liquids exist, guards must take into account the hazard of static sparks from shafting.

[Recodified as 296-307-28062. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-28062, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

 

WAC 296-307-28064 How must pulleys be maintained?

(1) Pulleys must be kept in proper alignment to prevent belts from running off.

(2) Any pulley carrying a nonshifting belt should have a crowned face.

(3) Cast-iron pulleys should be tested frequently with a hammer to detect cracks in rim or spokes. The sound is different depending on whether the belt is or is not on the pulley.

(4) Split pulleys should be inspected to be sure that all bolts holding together the sections of the pulley are tight.

[Recodified as 296-307-28064. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-28064, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-28066 How must belts be maintained?

(1) Quarter-twist belts without an idler can be used on drives running in one direction only. They will run off a pulley when direction is reversed.

(2) You must inspect belts, lacings, and fasteners to be sure they are kept in good repair.

(3) Dressing should not be applied when the belt or rope is in motion; but, when necessary, it should be applied where belts or rope leave the pulley, not where they approach. The same precautions apply to lubricating chains. In the case of V-belts, belt dressing is neither necessary nor advisable.

[Recodified as 296-307-28066. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-28066, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-28068 How must other equipment be maintained?

(1) You must inspect all power-transmission equipment at least every 60 days and ensure that it is kept in good working condition at all times.

(2) Bearings must be kept in alignment and properly adjusted.

(3) Hangers must be inspected to ensure that all supporting bolts and screws are tight and that supports of hanger boxes are adjusted properly.

(4) The oilers must wear tightfitting clothing and should use cans with long spouts to keep their hands out of danger. Machinery must be oiled when not in motion, wherever possible.

[Recodified as 296-307-28068. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-28068, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-290 Auger conveying equipment.

[Recodified as 296-307-290. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-290, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-29005 What requirements apply to auger conveying equipment? 

Augers” means screw conveyors and related accessories designed primarily for conveying agricultural materials on farms.

(1) Power take-off shafts must be guarded according to WAC 296-307-28046.

(2) All augers must be covered or guarded when exposed to contact.

(3) You must ensure that each sweep auger has its top half shielded by a guard. All guard openings must be no larger than 4 3/4 inches across.

(4) You must ensure that the exposed auger at the hopper and the intake is guarded or designed to prevent accidental contact with the rotating inlet area. The guard must extend at least 2 1/2 inches above and below the exposed auger. Openings in the guard, for the free flow of material, must be no larger than 4 3/4 inches across and must be strong enough to support 250 pounds at mid span.

(5) The hand raising winch must have a control that will hold the auger at any angle, and that will only respond to the control. You must ensure that the operator is able to lower the auger without disengaging the control. The maximum force required on the handle to raise or lower the auger manually must be 50 pounds.

(6) The wire rope lifting pulleys must be grooved to fit the wire rope used.

(7) In order to avoid separation, you must provide a positive restraint between the auger tube and the under-carriage lifting arm. You must provide stops that restrict the maximum raised angle and minimum lowered angle.

(8) Wire ropes (cables) must be rust resistant and selected for the design load and service intended.

(9) You must provide the auger operator with service and operation instructions that include safe operation and servicing practices.

[Recodified as 296-307-29005. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-29005, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

 

WAC 296-307-29010 What other requirements apply to auger conveying equipment manufactured after October 25, 1976? 

You must ensure that auger conveying equipment manufactured after October 25, 1976, is guarded as follows:

(1) Sweep-arm material-gathering mechanisms used on the top surface of materials within silo structures are guarded. The lower or leading edge of the guard is no more than 12 inches above the material surface and no less than 6 inches in front of the leading edge of the rotating member of the gathering mechanism. The guard is parallel to and extends the fullest practical length of the material gathering mechanism.

(2) Exposed auger flighting on portable grain augers is guarded with either grating type guards or solid baffle style covers as follows:

(a) The largest dimensions or openings in grating type guards through which materials flow is 4-3/4 inches. The opening area is a maximum of 10 square inches. The opening is least 2-1/2 inches from the rotating flighting.

(b) Slotted openings in solid baffle style covers are a maximum of 1-1/2 inches wide, or less than 3-1/2 inches from the exposed flighting.

[Recodified as 296-307-29010. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-29010, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-300 Guarding farmstead equipment.

[Recodified as 296-307-300. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-300, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-30003 What does this section cover? 

WAC 296-307-300 applies to the guarding and care of farmstead equipment.

Farmstead equipment” means agricultural equipment normally used in a stationary manner. This includes, but is not limited to, materials handling equipment and accessories for such equipment whether or not the equipment is an integral part of a building.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13), 296-307-30003, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99. [Recodified as 296-307-30003. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-30003, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-30006 How must power takeoff shafts of farmstead equipment be guarded?

(1) You must ensure that all power takeoff shafts, including rear-mounted, mid-mounted or side-mounted shafts, are guarded either by a master shield or by other protective guarding. The master shield must be strong enough to prevent damaging the shield when a 250-pound operator mounts or dismounts the tractor using the shield as a step.

(2) Power takeoff driven equipment must be guarded to prevent employee contact with rotating parts of the power drive system. Where power takeoff driven equipment requires removal of the tractor master shield, the equipment must also include protection from any portion of the tractor power takeoff shaft that protrudes from the tractor.

(3) Signs must be placed at prominent locations on power takeoff driven equipment specifying that power drive system safety shields must be kept in place.

[Recodified as 296-307-30006. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-30006, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-30009 How must other power transmission components of farmstead equipment be guarded?

(1) All power transmission parts must be guarded according to WAC 296-307-280.

(2) Smooth shafts and shaft ends (without any projecting bolts, keys, or set screws) may be unguarded if they:

(a) Revolve at less than 10 RPM; and

(b) Are part of feed handling equipment used on the top surface of materials in bulk storage facilities.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13), 296-307-30009, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99. [Recodified as 296-307-30009. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-30009, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-30012 How must functional components of farmstead equipment be guarded? 

The following functional components must be shielded to a degree consistent with the intended function and operator's vision of the component:

  • Snapping or husking rolls;

  • Straw spreaders and choppers;

  • Cutterbars;

  • Flail rotors;

  • Rotary beaters;

  • Mixing augers;

  • Feed rolls;

  • Rotary tillers; and

  • Similar units that must be exposed for proper function.

[Recodified as 296-307-30012. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-30012, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-30015 When may guards be removed on farmstead equipment?

(1) Guards, shields and access doors must be in place when the equipment is in operation.

(2) Where removal of a guard or access door will expose an employee to any component that continues to rotate after the power is disengaged, you must provide in the immediate area, a safety sign warning the employee:

(a) To look and listen for evidence of rotation; and

(b) To refrain from removing the guard or access door until all components have stopped.

(3) On equipment manufactured after October 25, 1976, a readily visible or audible warning of rotation is required.

[Recodified as 296-307-30015. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-30015, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-30018 What requirements apply to electrical control for maintaining and servicing farmstead equipment?

(1) You must ensure that only the employee maintaining or servicing equipment has control of the electrical power source by:

(a) Providing an exclusive, positive locking means on the main switch that can be operated only by the employee performing the maintenance or service; or

(b) For material handling equipment in a bulk storage structure, by providing on the equipment an electrical or mechanical means to disconnect the power. Minimum lockout means must meet the requirements of WAC 296-307-320.

(2) All circuit protection devices, including those that are an integral part of a motor, must have a manual reset, except where:

(a) A manual reset is infeasible because of the nature of the operation, distances involved, and the amount of time normally spent by employees in the area of the affected equipment;

(b) An electrical disconnect switch is available to the employee within fifteen feet of the equipment being maintained or serviced; and

(c) A sign, prominently posted near each hazardous component, warns the employee that unless the electrical disconnect switch is utilized, the motor could automatically reset while the employee is working on the hazardous component.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13), 296-307-30018, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99. [Recodified as 296-307-30018. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-30018, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-30021 What additional guarding requirements apply to farmstead equipment?

(1) You must ensure that carton or bag stitching machines are properly safeguarded to prevent anyone from coming in contact with the stitching head and other pinch or nip points.

(2) The point of operation of all machines must be guarded. The guard must be designed and constructed to prevent the operator from having any part of the body in the danger zone during the operating cycle.

Note: The distance from the point-of-operation guards to the danger line depends on the size of the opening. The required distances are outlined in the table below:

Guarding line or distance of opening from point of operation hazard (inches)

Maximum width of opening (inches)

1/2 to 1 1/2

1/4

1 1/2 to 2 1/2

3/8

2 1/2 to 3 1/2

1/2

3 1/2 to 5 1/2

5/8

5 1/2 to 6 1/2

3/4

6 1/2 to 7 1/2

7/8

7 1/2 to 12 1/2

1 1/4

12 1/2 to 15 1/2

1 1/2

15 1/2 to 17 1/2

1 7/8

17 1/2 to 31 1/2

2 1/8

[Recodified as 296-307-30021. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-30021, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

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