Safety Standards for Agriculture


Welding
Chapter 296-307 WAC, Part V (Continued)

 

WAC 296-307-48505 What requirements apply to flash welding equipment?

(1) Flash welding machines must have a hood to control flying flash. In cases of high production, where materials may contain a film of oil and where toxic elements and metal fumes are given off, ventilation must be provided according to WAC 296-307-50009 through 296-307-50029.

(2) For the protection of the operators of nearby equipment, fire-resistant curtains or suitable shields must be set up around the machine and in such a manner that the operator's movements are not hampered.

(3) If the welding process cannot be isolated, anyone who may be exposed to the hazard of arc flash must be properly protected.

[Statutory Authority: 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13) 296-307-48505, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99. [Recodified as 296-307-48505. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-48505, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-48507 Who must perform a job hazard analysis? 

A qualified person must perform a job hazard analysis on the operations to be performed on each welding machine to determine the safeguards and personal protective equipment that shall be used for each job.

[Recodified as 296-307-48507. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-48507, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-48509 What maintenance requirements apply to resistance welding equipment? 

Qualified maintenance personnel must periodically inspect the equipment and maintain records of the inspections. The operator must be instructed to report any equipment defects to the supervisor and the use of the equipment must be discontinued until safety repairs have been completed.

[Recodified as 296-307-48509. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-48509, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-490 Application, installation, and operation of arc welding and cutting equipment. 

[Recodified as 296-307-490. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-490, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-49001 What environmental conditions must be taken into account when selecting arc welding equipment?

Note: You may ensure that your equipment is designed for safety by choosing equipment that complies with the Requirements for Electric Arc-Welding Apparatus, NEMA EW-1-1962, National Electrical Manufacturers Association or the Safety Standard for Transformer-Type Arc-Welding Machines, ANSI C33.2-1956, Underwriters' Laboratories.

(1) Standard machines for arc welding service must be designed and constructed to carry their rated load with rated temperature rises where the temperature of the cooling air is a maximum of 40C (104F) and where the altitude is a maximum of 3,300 feet, and must be suitable for operation in atmospheres containing gases, dust, and light rays produced by the welding arc.

(2) When exposed to the following or other conditions, machines must be designed to safely meet the requirements of the service.

  • Unusually corrosive fumes;

  • Steam or excessive humidity;

  • Excessive oil vapor;

  • Flammable gases;

  • Abnormal vibration or shock;

  • Excessive dust;

  • Weather;

  • Unusual seacoast or shipboard conditions.

[Recodified as 296-307-49001. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97; effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17]050 and [49.17]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-49001, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

 

WAC 296-307-49003 What voltages must arc welding equipment use? 

Open circuit (no load) voltages of arc welding and cutting machines should be as low as possible consistent with satisfactory welding or cutting being done. Following are the maximum limits:

(1) For alternating-current machines:

(a) Manual arc welding and cutting-80 volts.

(b) Automatic (machine or mechanized) arc welding and cutting-100 volts.

(2) For direct-current machines:

(a) Manual arc welding and cutting-100 volts.

(b) Automatic (machine or mechanized) arc welding and cutting-100 volts.

(3) When special welding and cutting processes require values of open circuit voltages higher than the above, means must be provided to prevent the operator from making accidental contact with the high voltage by adequate insulation or other means.

Note: For a.c. welding under wet conditions or warm surroundings where perspiration is a factor, the use of reliable automatic controls for reducing no load voltage is recommended to reduce the shock hazard.

[Recodified as 296-307-49003. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-49003, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-49005 How must arc welding equipment be designed?

(1) A controller integrally mounted in an electric motor driven welder must be able to carry the rated motor current, must be able to make and interrupt stalled rotor current of the motor, and may serve as the running overcurrent device if provided with the number of over-current units as specified by chapter 296-307 WAC Part T. Starters with magnetic undervoltage release should be used with machines installed more than one to a circuit to prevent circuit overload caused by simultaneously starting several motors upon return of voltage.

(2) On all types of arc welding machines, control apparatus must be enclosed except for the operating wheels, levers, or handles.

Note: Control handles and wheels should be large enough to be easily grasped by a gloved hand.

(3) Input power terminals, tap change devices, and live metal parts connected to input circuits must be completely enclosed and accessible only by tools.

(4) Terminals for welding leads should be protected from accidental electrical contact by employees or by metal objects i.e., vehicles, crane hooks, etc. You may provide protection with:

  • Dead-front receptacles for plug connections;

  • Recessed openings with nonremovable hinged covers;

  • Heavy insulating sleeving or taping; or

  • Other equivalent electrical and mechanical protection.

If a welding lead terminal that is intended to be used exclusively for connection to the work is connected to the grounded enclosure, it must be done by a conductor at least two AWG sizes smaller than the grounding conductor and the terminal must be marked to indicate that it is grounded.

(5) No connections for portable control devices (such as push buttons to be carried by the operator) must be connected to an a.c. circuit of higher than 120 volts. Exposed metal parts of portable control devices operating on circuits above 50 volts must be grounded by a grounding conductor in the control cable.

(6) Auto transformers or a.c. reactors must not be used to draw welding current directly from any a.c. power source having a voltage exceeding 80 volts.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13) 296-307-49005, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99. [Recodified as 296-307-49005. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-49005, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-49007 How must arc welding equipment be installed? 

Arc welding equipment, including the power supply, must be installed according to the requirements of chapter 296-307 WAC Part T.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13) 296-307-49007, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99. [Recodified as 296-307-49007. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-49007, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

 

WAC 296-307-49009 How must arc welding equipment be grounded?

(1) The frame or case of the welding machine (except engine-driven machines) must be grounded according to the requirements of chapter 296-307 WAC Part T.

(2) Conduits containing electrical conductors must not be used for completing a work-lead circuit. Pipelines must not be used as a permanent part of a work-lead circuit, but may be used during construction, extension or repair if current is not carried through threaded joints, flanged bolted joints, or caulked joints and special precautions are used to avoid sparking at connection of the work-lead cable.

(3) Using chains, wire ropes, cranes, hoists, and elevators to carry welding current is prohibited.

(4) Where a structure, conveyor, or fixture is regularly used as a welding current return circuit, joints must be bonded or provided with adequate current collecting devices and appropriate periodic inspection should be conducted to ensure that no electrocution, shock, or fire hazard exists.

(5) All ground connections must be checked to determine that they are mechanically strong and electrically adequate for the required current.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13) 296-307-49009, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99. [Recodified as 296-307-49009. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-49009, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-49011 What requirements apply to supply connections and conductors?

(1) A disconnecting switch or controller must be provided at or near each welding machine without a switch or controller mounted as an integral part of the machine. The switch must meet the requirements of chapter 296-307 WAC Part T. Overcurrent protection must be provided as specified in chapter 296-307 WAC Part T. A disconnect switch with overload protection or equivalent disconnect and protection means, permitted by chapter 296-307 WAC Part T must be provided for each outlet intended for connection to a portable welding machine.

(2) For individual welding machines, the rated current-carrying capacity of the supply conductors must be at least that of the rated primary current of the welding machines.

(3) For groups of welding machines, the rated current-carrying capacity of conductors may be less than the sum of the rated primary currents of the welding machines supplied. The conductor rating must be determined according to the machine loading based on the use to be made of each welding machine and the allowance permissible in the event that all the welding machines supplied by the conductors will not be in use at the same time.

(4) In operations involving several welders on one structure, d.c. welding process requirements may require the use of both polarities; or supply circuit limitations for a.c. welding may require distribution of machines among the phases of the supply circuit. In such cases, no load voltages between electrode holders will be two times normal in d.c. or 1, 1.4, 1.73, or 2 times normal on a.c. machines. Similar voltage differences will exist if both a.c. and d.c. welding are done on the same structure.

(a) All d.c. machines must be connected with the same polarity.

(b) All a.c. machines must be connected to the same phase of the supply circuit and with the same instantaneous polarity.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13) 296-307-49011, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99. [Recodified as 296-307-49011. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-49011, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-49013 How must arc welding equipment be operated?

(1) Employees assigned to operate or maintain arc welding equipment must be acquainted with the requirements of WAC 296-307-490, 296-307-495, and 296-307-500; if doing gas-shielded arc welding, also Recommended Safe Practices for Gas-Shielded Arc Welding, A6.1-1966, American Welding Society.

(2) Before starting operations, all connections to the machine must be checked to make certain they are properly made. The work lead must be firmly attached to the work; magnetic work clamps shall be freed from adherent metal particles of spatter on contact surfaces. Coiled welding cable must be spread out before use to avoid serious overheating and damage to insulation.

(3) You must ensure that the welding machine frame grounding is checked with special attention given to safety ground connections of portable machines.

(4) Cylinders must be kept away from radiators, piping systems, layout tables, etc., that may be used for grounding electric circuits. Any practice such as the tapping of an electrode against a cylinder to strike an arc is prohibited.

(5) There must be no leaks of cooling water, shielding gas or engine fuel.

(6) You must ensure that the machine has proper switching equipment for shutting down.

(7) Printed rules and instructions covering operation of equipment supplied by the manufacturers must be strictly followed.

(8) Electrode holders when not in use must be placed so that they cannot make electrical contact with persons, conducting objects, fuel or compressed gas tanks.

(9) Cables with splices within 10 feet of the holder are prohibited. The welder should not coil or loop welding electrode cable around parts of the body.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13) 296-307-49013, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99. [Recodified as 296-307-49013. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-49013, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

 

WAC 296-307-49015 How must arc welding equipment be maintained?

(1) The operator should report any equipment defect or safety hazard to the supervisor and discontinue using the equipment until its safety is ensured. Repairs must be made only by qualified persons.

(2) Machines that have become wet must be thoroughly dried and tested before being used.

(3) Work and electrode lead cables should be frequently inspected for wear and damage. Cables with damaged insulation or exposed bare conductors must be replaced. Lengths of work and electrode cables must be joined by connecting means specifically intended for the purpose. The connecting means must have insulation adequate for the service conditions.

[Recodified as 296-307-49015. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-49015, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-495 Fire prevention and protection.

[Recodified as 296-307-495. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-495, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-49501 What basic fire prevention precautions must be taken? 

For more information on these basic precautions and the special precautions of WAC 296-307-49503, including fire protection and prevention responsibilities of welders, cutters, their supervisors (including outside contractors), and management, see the Standard for Fire Prevention in Use of Cutting and Welding Processes, NFPA Standard 51B, 1962.

The basic precautions for fire prevention in welding or cutting work are:

(1) If the object to be welded or cut cannot readily be moved, all movable fire hazards in the vicinity must be taken to a safe place.

(2) If the object to be welded or cut cannot be moved and if all the fire hazards cannot be removed, then guards must be used to confine the heat, sparks, and slag, and to protect the fire hazards.

(3) If the requirements of this section cannot be met, then welding and cutting are prohibited.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13) 296-307-49501, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99 [Recodified as 296-307-49501. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-49501, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-49503 What special fire prevention precautions must be taken? 

When the nature of the work to be performed falls within the scope of WAC 296-307-49501(2), certain additional precautions may be necessary:

(1) Wherever there are floor openings or cracks in the flooring that cannot be closed, precautions must be taken so that no readily combustible materials on the floor below will be exposed to sparks that drop through. The same precautions must be observed with regard to cracks or holes in walls, open doorways, and open or broken windows.

(2) Suitable fire extinguishing equipment must be maintained in a state of readiness for instant use. Such equipment may consist of pails of water, buckets of sand, hose, or portable extinguishers depending upon the nature and quantity of the combustible material exposed.

(3) The following requirements apply to fire watch:

(a) Fire watchers are required whenever welding or cutting is performed in locations where other than a minor fire might develop, or any of the following conditions exist:

(i) Appreciable combustible material, in building construction or contents, closer than 35 feet to the point of operation.

(ii) Appreciable combustibles are more than 35 feet away but are easily ignited by sparks.

(iii) Wall or floor openings within a 35-foot radius expose combustible material in adjacent areas including concealed spaces in walls or floors.

(iv) Combustible materials are adjacent to the opposite side of metal partitions, walls, ceilings, or roofs and are likely to be ignited by conduction or radiation.

(b) Fire watchers must have fire extinguishing equipment readily available and be trained in its use. They must be familiar with facilities for sounding an alarm in the event of a fire. They must watch for fires in all exposed areas, try to extinguish them only when obviously within the capacity of the equipment available, or otherwise sound the alarm. A fire watch must be maintained for at least a half hour after completion of welding or cutting operations to detect and extinguish possible smoldering fires.

(4) Before cutting or welding is permitted, the area must be inspected by the individual responsible for authorizing cutting and welding operations. The responsible individual must designate precautions to be followed in granting authorization to proceed, preferably in the form of a written permit.

(5) Where combustible materials such as paper clippings, wood shavings, or textile fibers are on the floor, the floor must be swept clean for a radius of 35 feet. Combustible floors must be kept wet, covered with damp sand, or protected by fire-resistant shields. Where floors have been wet down, employees operating arc welding or cutting equipment must be protected from possible shock.

(6) Cutting and welding are prohibited in the following situations:

(a) In areas not authorized by management.

(b) In sprinklered buildings while such protection is impaired.

(c) In the presence of explosive atmospheres (mixtures of flammable gases, vapors, liquids, or dusts with air), or where explosive atmospheres may develop inside uncleaned or improperly prepared tanks or equipment that have previously contained such materials, or that may develop in areas with an accumulation of combustible dusts.

(d) In areas near the storage of large quantities of exposed, readily ignitable materials such as bulk sulphur, baled paper, or cotton.

(7) Where practical, all combustibles must be relocated at least 35 feet from the worksite. Where relocation is impractical, combustibles must be protected with flameproofed covers or otherwise shielded with metal or asbestos guards or curtains. Edges of covers at the floor should be tight to prevent sparks from going under them. This precaution is also important at overlaps where several covers are used to protect a large pile.

(8) Ducts and conveyor systems that might carry sparks to distant combustibles must be suitably protected or shut down.

(9) Where cutting or welding is done near walls, partitions, ceiling, or roof of combustible construction, fire-resistant shields or guards must be provided to prevent ignition.

(10) If welding is to be done on a metal wall, partition, ceiling, or roof, precautions must be taken to prevent ignition of combustibles on the other side, due to conduction or radiation, preferably by relocating combustibles. Where combustibles are not relocated, a fire watch on the opposite side from the work must be provided.

(11) Welding must not be attempted on a metal partition, wall, ceiling, or roof having a combustible covering nor on walls or partitions of combustible sandwich-type panel construction.

(12) Cutting or welding on pipes or other metal in contact with combustible walls, partitions, ceilings or roofs must not be undertaken if the work is close enough to cause ignition by conduction.

(13) You are responsible for the safe use of cutting and welding equipment on your property and:

(a) Based on fire potentials of plant facilities, you must establish areas and procedures for cutting and welding;

(b) You must designate an individual responsible for authorizing cutting and welding operations in areas not specifically designed for such processes;

(c) You must insist that cutters or welders and their supervisors are suitably trained in the safe operation of their equipment and the safe use of the process; and

(d) You must advise all contractors about flammable materials or hazardous conditions of which they may not be aware.

(14) The supervisor must:

(a) Ensure that cutting and welding equipment is handled and used safely.

(b) Determine the combustible materials and hazardous areas present or likely to be present in the work location.

(c) Protect combustibles from ignition by the following:

(i) Have the work moved to a location free from dangerous combustibles;

(ii) If the work cannot be moved, have the combustibles moved to a safe distance from the work or have the combustibles properly shielded against ignition; and

(iii) See that cutting and welding are so scheduled that plant operations that might expose combustibles to ignition are not started during cutting or welding.

(d) Secure authorization for the cutting or welding operations from the designated management representative.

(e) Determine that the cutter or welder secures their approval that conditions are safe before going ahead;

(f) Determine that fire protection and extinguishing equipment are properly located at the site; and

(g) Ensure fire watches are available at the site when required.

(15) Cutting or welding is permitted only in areas that are or have been made fire safe. Within the confines of an operating plant or building, cutting and welding should preferably be done in a specific area designed for such work, such as a maintenance shop or a detached outside location. Such areas should be of noncombustible or fire-resistive construction, essentially free of combustible and flammable contents, and suitably segregated from adjacent areas. When work cannot be moved practically, as in most construction work, the area must be made safe by removing combustibles or protecting combustibles from ignition sources.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13) 296-307-49503, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99. [Recodified as 296-307-49503. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-49503, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

 

WAC 296-307-49505 What precautions must be taken when welding or cutting containers?

(1) No welding, cutting, or other hot work may be performed on used drums, barrels, tanks or other containers until they have been cleaned thoroughly enough to be certain that there are no flammable materials present or any substances such as greases, tars, acids, or other materials which when subjected to heat, might produce flammable or toxic vapors. Any pipe lines or connections to the drum or vessel must be disconnected or blanked.

(2) All hollow spaces, cavities, or containers must be vented to permit the escape of air or gases before preheating, cutting or welding. Purging with inert gas is recommended.

[Recodified as 296-307-49505. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-49505, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-49507 What precautions must be taken when welding in confined spaces?

(1) When arc welding work is stopped for a substantial time, such as during lunch or overnight, all electrodes must be removed from the holders and the holders carefully located so that accidental contact cannot occur and the machine be disconnected from the power source.

(2) In order to eliminate the possibility of gas escaping through leaks or improperly closed valves, when gas welding or cutting, the torch valves must be closed and the gas supply to the torch positively shut off at some point outside the confined area whenever the torch is not to be used for a substantial period of time, such as during lunch hour or overnight. Where practical, the torch and hose must also be removed from the confined space.

[Recodified as 296-307-49507. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-49507, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-500 Protection of employees.

[Recodified as 296-307-500. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-500, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-50001 How must eye protection be selected?

(1) Helmets or hand shields must be used during all arc welding or arc cutting operations, excluding submerged arc welding. Goggles should also be worn during arc welding or cutting operations to provide protection from injurious rays from adjacent work, and from flying objects. The goggles may have either clear or colored glass, depending on the amount of exposure to adjacent welding operations. Helpers or attendants must have proper eye protection.

(2) Goggles or other suitable eye protection must be used during all gas welding or oxygen cutting operations. Spectacles without side shields, with suitable filter lenses are permitted for use during gas welding operations on light work, for torch brazing, or for inspection.

(3) All operators and attendants of resistance welding or resistance brazing equipment must use transparent face shields or goggles, depending on the job, to protect their faces or eyes as required.

(4) Suitable goggles must be provided where needed for brazing operations not above.

[Recodified as 296-307-50001. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-50001, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

 

WAC 296-307-50003 What specifications must eye protection meet?

(1) Helmets and hand shields must be made of a material that is an insulator for heat and electricity. Helmets, shields and goggles must be not readily flammable and must be able to be sterilized.

(2) Helmets and hand shields must be arranged to protect the face, neck and ears from direct radiant energy from the arc.

(3) Helmets must have filter plates and cover plates designed for easy removal.

(4) All parts must be constructed of a material that will not readily corrode or discolor the skin.

(5) Goggles must be ventilated to prevent fogging of the lenses as much as practical.

(6) Cover lenses or plates should be provided to protect each helmet, hand shield, or goggle filter lens or plate.

(7) All glass for lenses must be tempered, substantially free from scratches, air bubbles, waves and other flaws. Except when a lens is ground to provide proper optical correction for defective vision, the front and rear surfaces of lenses and windows must be smooth and parallel.

(8) Lenses must be marked with the source and shade.

(9) Following is a guide to select proper shade numbers. Individual needs may vary.

Welding Operation

Shade No.

Shielded metal-arc welding--1/16-, 3/32-, 1/8-, 5/32-inch electrodes 

Gas-shielded arc welding (nonferrous)-1/16-, 3/32-, 1/8-, 5/32-inch electrodes 

Gas-shielded arc welding (ferrous)-1/16-, 3/32-, 1/8-, 5/32-inch electrodes 

Shielded metal-arc welding: 

3/16-, 7/32-, 1/4-inch electrodes 

5/-16-, 3/8-inch electrodes 

Atomic hydrogen welding 

Carbon arc welding 

Soldering 

Torch brazing 

Light cutting, up to 1 inch 

Medium cutting, 1 inch to 6 inches 

Heavy cutting, 6 inches and over 

Gas welding (light) up to 1/8 inch 

Gas welding (medium) 1/8 inch to 1/2 inch 

Gas welding (heavy) 1/2 inch and over 

Note: In gas welding or oxygen cutting where the torch produces a high yellow light it is desirable to use a filter or lens that absorbs the yellow or sodium line in the visible light of the operation.

10 

11 

12 

12 

14 

10-14 

14 

3 or 4 

3 or 4 

4 or 5 

5 or 6 

4 or 5 

5 or 6 

6 or 8

(10) All filter lenses and plates must meet the test for transmission of radiant energy prescribed in ANSI Z 87.1-1968--American National Standard Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection.

(11) Where the work permits, an arc welder should be enclosed in an individual booth painted with a finish of low-reflectivity such as zinc oxide (an important factor for absorbing ultraviolet radiations) and lamp black, or must be enclosed with noncombustible screens similarly painted. Booths and screens must permit circulation of air at floor level. Employees or other persons adjacent to the welding areas must be protected from the rays by noncombustible or flameproof screens or shields or must be required to wear appropriate goggles.

[Recodified as 296-307-50003. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-50003, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-50005 What protective clothing must welders wear?

(1) Employees exposed to the hazards created by welding, cutting, or brazing operations must be protected by personal protective equipment according to the requirements of chapter 296-307 WAC Part H. Appropriate protective clothing required for any welding operation will vary with the size, nature and location of the work to be performed.

(2) The following suggestions may be helpful when choosing protective clothing:

(a) Except when engaged in light work, all welders should wear flameproof gauntlet gloves.

(b) Flameproof aprons made of leather, asbestos, or other suitable material may help to protect against radiated heat and sparks.

(c) Woolen clothing is better than cotton because it is less easily ignited and helps to protect the welder from changes in temperature. Cotton clothing, if used, should be chemically treated to reduce its combustibility. All outer clothing such as jumpers or overalls should be reasonably free from oil or grease.

(d) Sparks may lodge in rolled-up sleeves, pockets, or cuffs. Therefore sleeves and collars should be buttoned, and clothing should have no front pockets. Trousers or overalls should be uncuffed.

(e) For heavy work, fire-resistant leggings, high boots, or other equivalent means should be used.

(f) In production work a sheet metal screen in front of the employee's legs can provide further protection against sparks and molten metal in cutting operations.

(g) Capes or shoulder covers made of leather or other suitable materials should be worn during overhead welding or cutting operations. Leather skull caps may be worn under helmets to prevent head burns.

(h) For welding and cutting overhead or in extremely confined spaces, ear protection is sometimes desirable.

(i) Where there is exposure to sharp or heavy falling objects, or a hazard of bumping in confined spaces, hard hats or head protectors must be used.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13) 296-307-50005, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99. [Recodified as 296-307-50005. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-50005, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

 

WAC 296-307-50007 What other requirements apply to employee protection?

(1) You must ensure that a welder or helper working on platforms, scaffolds, or runways is protected against falling by using railings, safety belts, life lines, or other equally effective safeguards.

(2) Welders must place welding cable and other equipment so that it is clear of passageways, ladders, and stairways.

[Recodified as 296-307-50007. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-50007, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-50009 What employee protection must be provided in confined spaces?

Confined space” means a relatively small or restricted space such as a tank, boiler, pressure vessel, or small compartment of a ship.

(1) Confined spaces must be ventilated. For ventilation requirements see WAC 296-307-50011 through 296-307-50029.

(2) When welding or cutting in a confined space, the gas cylinders and welding machines must be left outside. Before operations are started, heavy portable equipment mounted on wheels must be securely blocked to prevent accidental movement.

(3) Where a welder must enter a confined space through a manhole or other small opening, means must be provided for quickly removing the welder in case of emergency. When safety belts and lifelines are used, they must be attached so that the welder's body cannot be jammed in a small exit opening. An attendant with a preplanned rescue procedure must be stationed outside to observe the welder at all times and be able to put rescue operations into effect.

(4) After welding operations are completed, the welder must mark the hot metal or provide some other means of warning other employees.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13) 296-307-50009, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99. [Recodified as 296-307-50009. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-50009, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-50011 What general requirements apply to welding ventilation?

(1) The following three factors in arc and gas welding must be considered when determining the amount of contamination to which welders may be exposed:

(a) Dimensions of space in which welding is to be done (especially ceiling height);

(b) Number of welders; and

(c) The possibility of hazardous fumes, gases, or dust according to the metals involved.

(2) Other factors involved may require ventilation or respiratory protective devices as needed to meet the requirements of this section. Such factors include:

(a) Atmospheric conditions;

(b) Heat generated; and

(c) Presence of volatile solvents.

(3) When welding must be performed in a space entirely screened on all sides, the screens must be arranged so that no serious restriction of ventilation exists. The screens should be mounted so that they are about 2 feet above the floor unless the work is performed at so low a level that the screen must be extended nearer to the floor to protect nearby employees from the glare of welding.

(4) Local exhaust or general ventilating systems must be provided and arranged to keep the amount of toxic fumes, gases, or dusts below the maximum allowable in chapter 296-62 WAC.

Note: A number of potentially hazardous materials are employed in fluxes, coatings, coverings, and filler metals used in welding and cutting or are released to the atmosphere during welding and cutting. These include but are not limited to the materials itemized in WAC 296-307-50019 through 296-307-50029.

(5) You must determine which potentially hazardous materials are associated with welding and cutting and inform employees through signs, labels or other appropriate means.

(a) Welding may produce fumes and gases hazardous to health. Avoid breathing these fumes and gases. Use adequate ventilation. See ANSI Z 49.1-1967, Safety in Welding and Cutting, published by the American Welding Society.

(b) Brazing (welding) filler metals containing cadmium in significant amounts must carry the following notice on tags, boxes, or other containers:

WARNING CONTAINS CADMIUM-POISONOUS FUMES MAY BE FORMED ON HEATING Do not breathe fumes. Use only adequate ventilation such as fume collectors, exhaust ventilators, or air-supplied respirators. See ANSI Z 49.1-1967. If chest pain, cough, or fever develops after use call physician immediately. Keep children away when using.

(c) Brazing and gas welding fluxes containing fluorine compounds must have a cautionary wording to indicate that they contain fluorine compounds. The American Welding Society recommends the following for brazing and gas welding fluxes:

CAUTION CONTAINS FLUORIDES This flux when heated gives off fumes that may irritate eyes, nose and throat. Avoid fumes. Use only in well-ventilated spaces. Avoid contact of flux with eyes or skin. Do not take internally.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13) 296-307-50011, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99. [Recodified as 296-307-50011. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-50011, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

 

WAC 296-307-50013 What ventilation must be provided for general welding and cutting?

(1) Mechanical ventilation must be provided when welding or cutting is done on metals not covered in WAC 296-307-50019 through 296-307-50029 in the following locations:

(a) In a space of less than 10,000 cubic feet per welder.

(b) In a room with a ceiling height of less than 16 feet.

(c) In confined spaces or where the welding space contains partitions, balconies, or other structural barriers to the extent that they significantly obstruct cross-ventilation.

(2) Ventilation must be at the minimum rate of 2,000 cubic feet per minute per welder.

Exception: This requirement does not apply where local exhaust hoods and booths that meet the requirements of WAC 296-307-50015, or airline respirators approved by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) for such purposes are provided. Natural ventilation is considered sufficient for welding or cutting operations where the restrictions in subsection (1) of this section are not present.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13) 296-307-50013, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99. [Recodified as 296-307-50013. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-50013, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-50015 What requirements apply to local exhaust hoods and booths?

Mechanical local exhaust ventilation may be provided by either of the following:

(1) Freely movable hoods intended to be placed by the welder as near as practical to the work being welded and provided with a rate of airflow sufficient to maintain a velocity in the direction of the hood of 100 linear feet per minute in the zone of welding when the hood is at its most remote distance from the point of welding. The rates of ventilation required to accomplish this control velocity using a 3-inch wide flanged suction opening are shown in the following table:

Welding Zone

Minimum air flow cubic feet/minute1

Duct Diameter Inches2

4 to 6 inches from arc or torch

150

3

6 to 8 inches from arc or torch

275

3 1/2

8 to 10 inches from arc or torch

425

4 1/2

10 to 12 inches from arc or torch

600

5 1/2

1When brazing with cadmium brazing materials or when cutting on such materials increased rates of ventilation may be required. 2Nearest half-inch duct diameter based on 4,000 feet per minute velocity in pipe.

(2) A fixed enclosure with a top and at least two sides that surround the welding or cutting operations and with a rate of airflow sufficient to maintain a velocity away from the welder of not less than 100 linear feet per minute.

[Recodified as 296-307-50015. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-50015, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-50017 What ventilation must be provided in confined spaces?

(1) All welding and cutting operations carried on in confined spaces must be adequately ventilated to prevent the accumulation of toxic materials or possible oxygen deficiency. This applies to welders, helpers, and other employees in the immediate vicinity. All replacement air must be clean and respirable.

(2) In circumstances where it is impossible to provide such ventilation, airline respirators or hose masks approved by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) for this purpose must be used.

(3) In areas immediately hazardous to life, hose masks with blowers or self-contained breathing equipment must be used. The breathing equipment must be approved by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).

(4) Where welding operations are carried on in confined spaces and where welders and helpers are provided with hose masks, hose masks with blowers or self-contained breathing equipment approved by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), an employee must be stationed on the outside of such confined spaces to ensure the safety of those working within.

(5) Oxygen must not be used for ventilation.

[Recodified as 296-307-50017. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-50017, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

 

WAC 296-307-50019 What requirements apply to welding fluorine compounds? 

In confined spaces, welding or cutting involving fluxes, coverings, or other materials that contain fluorine compounds must be done according to WAC 296-307-50017.

Fluorine compound” means a compound that contains fluorine as an element in chemical combination, not as a free gas.

Note: The need for local exhaust ventilation or airline respirators for welding or cutting in other than confined spaces will depend on the circumstances. However, such protection is desirable for fixed-location production welding and for all production welding on stainless steels. Where air samples taken at the welding location indicate that the fluorides liberated are below the maximum allowable concentration, such protection is not necessary.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13) 296-307-50019, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99. [Recodified as 296-307-50019. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-50019, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-50021 What requirements apply to welding zinc?

(1) In confined spaces welding or cutting involving zinc-bearing base or filler metals or metals coated with zinc-bearing materials must be done according to WAC 296-307-50017.

(2) Indoors, welding or cutting involving zinc-bearing base or filler metals coated with zinc-bearing materials must be done according to WAC 296-307-50015.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13) 296-307-50021, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99. [Recodified as 296-307-50021. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-50021, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-50023 What requirements apply to welding lead?

(1) In confined spaces, welding involving lead-base metals (erroneously called lead-burning) must be done according to WAC 296-307-50017.

(2) Indoors, welding involving lead-base metals must be done according to WAC 296-307-50015.

(3) In confined spaces or indoors, welding or cutting involving metals containing lead, other than as an impurity, or involving metals coated with lead-bearing materials, including paint, must be done using local exhaust ventilation or airline respirators. Outdoors, such operations must be done using respiratory protective equipment approved by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) for such purposes. In all cases, employees in the immediate vicinity of the cutting operation must be protected as necessary by local exhaust ventilation or airline respirators.

Note: See chapter 296-62 WAC for additional requirements on lead.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13) 296-307-50023, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99. [Recodified as 296-307-50023. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-50023, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-50025 What requirements apply to welding beryllium? 

Welding or cutting indoors, outdoors, or in confined spaces involving beryllium-containing base or filler metals must be done using local exhaust ventilation and airline respirators unless atmospheric tests under the most adverse conditions have established that employee exposure is within the acceptable concentrations defined by WAC 296-307-62625. In all cases, employees in the immediate vicinity of the welding or cutting operations must be protected as necessary by local exhaust ventilation or airline respirators.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 05-01-166 (Order 04-19), § 296-307-50025, filed 12/21/04, effective 04/02/05. Recodified as 296-307-50025. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-50025, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-50027 What requirements apply to welding cadmium?

(1) Welding or cutting indoors or in confined spaces involving cadmium-bearing or cadmium-coated base metals must be done using local exhaust ventilation or airline respirators unless atmospheric tests under the most adverse conditions have established that employee exposure is within the acceptable concentrations defined by chapter 296-62 WAC. Outdoors, such operations must be done using respiratory protective equipment such as fume respirators approved by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) for such purposes.

(2) Welding (brazing) involving cadmium-bearing filler metals must be done using ventilation as prescribed in WAC 296-307-50015 or 296-307-50017 if the work is to be done in a confined space.

Note: See chapter 296-62 WAC for additional requirements on cadmium.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17.040 RCW. 98-24-096 (Order 98-13) 296-307-50027, filed 12/01/98, effective 03/01/99. [Recodified as 296-307-50027. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-50027, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

WAC 296-307-50029 What requirements apply to welding mercury? 

Welding or cutting indoors or in a confined space involving metals coated with mercury-bearing materials, including paint, must be done using local exhaust ventilation or airline respirators unless atmospheric tests under the most adverse conditions have established that employee exposure is within the acceptable concentrations defined by WAC 296-307-62625. Outdoors, such operations must be done using respiratory protective equipment approved by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) for such purposes.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 05-01-166 (Order 04-19), § 296-307-50029, filed 12/21/04, effective 04/02/05. Recodified as 296-307-50029. 97-09-013, filed 4/7/97, effective 4/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 96-22-048, 296-306A-50029, filed 10/31/96, effective 12/1/96.]

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