General Occupational Health Standards

Table of Contents



Asbestos, Tremolite, Anthophyllite, and Actinolite
Chapter 296-62 WAC, Part I-1 (Continued)

 

WAC 296-62-07713 Methods of compliance for asbestos activities in general industry.

(1) Engineering controls and work practices.

(a) The employer must institute engineering controls and work practices to reduce and maintain employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure limits prescribed in WAC 296-62-07705, except to the extent that such controls are not feasible. Engineering controls and work practices include but are not limited to the following:

(i) Local exhaust ventilation equipped with HEPA filter dust collection systems;

(ii) Vacuum cleaners equipped with HEPA filters;

(iii) Enclosure or isolation of processes producing asbestos dust;

(iv) Use of wet methods, wetting agents, or removal encapsulants to control employee exposures during asbestos handling, mixing, removal, cutting, application, and cleanup;

(v) Prompt disposal of wastes contaminated with asbestos in leak-tight containers; or

(vi) Use of work practices or other engineering controls that the director can show to be feasible.

(b) Wherever the feasible engineering controls and work practices that can be instituted are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure limits prescribed in WAC 296-62-07705, the employer must use them to reduce employee exposure to the lowest levels achievable by these controls and must supplement them by the use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of WAC 296-62-07715.

(c) For the following operations, wherever feasible engineering controls and work practices that can be instituted are not sufficient to reduce the employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure limits prescribed in WAC 296-62-07705, the employer must use them to reduce employee exposure to or below 0.5 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (as an eight-hour time-weighted average) or 2.5 fibers per cubic centimeter of air for 30 minutes (short-term exposure), and must supplement them by the use of any combination of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of WAC 296-62-07715, work practices and feasible engineering controls that will reduce employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure limits prescribed in WAC 296-62-07705: Coupling cutoff in primary asbestos cement pipe manufacturing; sanding in primary and secondary asbestos cement sheet manufacturing; grinding in primary and secondary friction product manufacturing; carding and spinning in dry textile processes; and grinding and sanding in primary plastics manufacturing.

(d) Local exhaust ventilation. Local exhaust HEPA ventilation and dust collection systems must be designed, constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with good practices such as those found in the American National Standard Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, ANSI Z9.2-1979.

(e) Particular tools. All hand-operated and power-operated tools which would produce or release fibers of asbestos so as to expose employees to levels in excess of the exposure limits prescribed in WAC 296-62-07705, such as, but not limited to, saws, scorers, abrasive wheels, and drills, must be provided with local exhaust ventilation systems which comply with (d) of this subsection. High-speed abrasive disc saws that are not equipped with appropriate engineering controls must not be used for work related to asbestos.

(f) Wet methods. Asbestos must be handled, mixed, applied, removed, cut, scored, or otherwise worked in a wet saturated state to prevent the emission of airborne fibers unless the usefulness of the product would be diminished thereby.

(g) Particular products and operations. When asbestos cement, mortar, coating, grout, plaster, or similar material containing asbestos is removed from bags, cartons, or other containers in which they are shipped, it must be either wetted, enclosed, or ventilated so as to prevent effectively the release of airborne fibers of asbestos.

(h) Compressed air. Compressed air must not be used to remove asbestos or materials containing asbestos unless the compressed air is used in conjunction with an enclosed ventilation system designed to effectively capture the dust cloud created by the compressed air.

(2) Compliance program.

(a) Where either the time weighted average and/or excursion limit is exceeded, the employer must establish and implement a written program to reduce employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure limits by means of engineering and work practice controls as required by subsection (1) of this section, and by the use of respiratory protection where required or permitted under this section.

(b) Such programs must be reviewed and updated as necessary to reflect significant changes in the status of the employer's compliance program.

(c) Written programs must be submitted upon request for examination and copying to the director, affected employees and designated employee representatives.

(d) The employer must not use employee rotation as a means of compliance with the permissible exposure limits specified in WAC 296-62-07705.

(3) Specific compliance methods for brake and clutch repair:

(a) Engineering controls and work practices for brake and clutch repair and service. During automotive brake and clutch inspection, disassembly, repair and assembly operations, the employer must institute engineering controls and work practices to reduce employee exposure to materials containing asbestos using a negative pressure enclosure/HEPA vacuum system method or low pressure/wet cleaning method which meets the detailed requirements in WAC 296-62-07745, Appendix F. The employer may also comply using an equivalent method which follows written procedures which the employer demonstrates can achieve results equivalent to Method (1) Negative pressure enclosure/HEPA vacuum system method in WAC 296-62-07745, Appendix F. For facilities in which no more than 5 pair of brakes or 5 clutches are inspected, disassembled, repaired, or assembled per week, (4) Wet method in WAC 296-62-07745, Appendix F may be used instead of Method (1).

(b) The employer may also comply by using an equivalent method which follows written procedures, which the employer demonstrates can achieve equivalent exposure reductions as do the two “preferred methods.” Such demonstration must include monitoring data conducted under workplace conditions closely resembling the process, type of asbestos containing materials, control method, work practices and environmental conditions which the equivalent method will be used, or objective data, which document that under all reasonably foreseeable conditions of brake and clutch repair applications, the method results in exposure which are equivalent to the methods in WAC 296-62-07745, Appendix F.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050 and RCW 49.26.130. 00-06-075 (Order 99-40), 296-62-07713, filed 03/01/00, effective 04/10/00. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, .050, RCW 49.26.040 and RCW 49.26.130. 99-17-026 (Order 98-35), 296-62-07713, filed 08/10/99, effective 11/10/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 97-01-079, 296-62-07713, filed 12/17/96, effective 3/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 90-17-051 (Order 90-10), 296-62-07713, filed 8/13/90, effective 9/24/90; 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), 296-62-07713, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89; 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), 296-62-07713, filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), 296-62-07713, filed 4/27/87.]

 

WAC 296-62-07715 Respiratory protection.

(1) General. For employees who use respirators as required by WAC 296-62-077 through 296-62-07747, the employer must provide respirators that comply with the requirements of this section. Respirators must be used during:

(a) Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work-practice controls;

(b) Work operations, such as maintenance and repair activities, for which engineering and work-practice controls are not feasible;

(c) Work operations for which feasible engineering and work-practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure limits;

(d) Emergencies;

(e) Work operations in all regulated areas, except for construction activities which follow requirements set forth in WAC 296-62-07715 (1)(g);

(f) Work operations whenever employee exposure exceeds the permissible exposure limits;

(g) The following construction activities:

(i) Class I asbestos work;

(ii) Class II work where the ACM is not removed in a substantially intact state;

(iii) Class II and Class III work which is not performed using wet methods, except for removal of ACM from sloped roofs when a negative-exposure assessment has been made and the ACM is removed in an intact state;

(iv) Class II and Class III asbestos work for which a negative-exposure assessment has not been conducted;

(v) Class III work when TSI or surfacing ACM or PACM is being disturbed;

(vi) Class IV work performed within regulated areas where employees who are performing other work are required to wear respirators.

(2) Respirator program.

(a) The employer must develop, implement and maintain a respiratory protection program as required by chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators, which covers each employee required by this chapter to use a respirator.

(b) Employers must provide an employee with a tight-fitting, powered, air-purifying respirator (PAPR) instead of a negative-pressure respirator selected when an employee chooses to use a PAPR and the respirator provides the protection to the employee.

(c) The employer must inform any employee required to wear a respirator under this section that the employee may require the employer to provide a tight-fitting, powered, air-purifying respirator (PAPR) instead of a negative-pressure respirator.

(d) No employee must be assigned to tasks requiring the use of respirators if, based on their most recent medical examination, the examining physician determines that the employee will be unable to function normally using a respirator, or that the safety or health of the employee or other employees will be impaired by the use of a respirator. Such employees must be assigned to another job or given the opportunity to transfer to a different position, the duties of which they can perform. If such a transfer position is available, the position must be with the same employer, in the same geographical area, and with the same seniority, status, and rate of pay the employee had just prior to such transfer.

(3) Respirator selection. The employer must:

(a) Select and provide to employees appropriate respirators as specified in this section, and in WAC 296-842-13005, in the respirator rule.

Make sure filtering facepiece respirators aren't selected or used for protection against asbestsos fibers.

(b) Provide employees with an air-purifying, half-facepiece respirator, other than a filtering-facepiece respirator, that is equipped with a HEPA filter or an N-, R-, orP-100 series filter whenever the employee performs:

(i) Class II and III asbestos work for which no negative-exposure assessment is available;

(ii) Class III asbestos work involving disturbances of TSI or surfacing ACM or PACM.

(e) Equip any powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) or negative-pressure air-purifying respirator with HEPA filters or N-, R-, or P-100 series filters.

(4) Special respiratory protection requirements.

(a) Unless specifically identified in this subsection, respirator selection for asbestos removal, demolition, and renovation operations shall be in accordance with the selection specifications of this section and the general selection requirements in WAC 296-842-13005, found in the respirator rule. The employer must provide and require to be worn, at no cost to the employee, a full facepiece supplied-air respirator operated in the pressure demand mode equipped with either an auxiliary positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus or a HEPA filter egress cartridge, to employees engaged in the following asbestos operations:

(i) Inside negative pressure enclosures used for removal, demolition, and renovation of friable asbestos from walls, ceilings, vessels, ventilation ducts, elevator shafts, and other structural members, but does not include pipes or piping systems; or

(ii) Any dry removal of asbestos.

(b) For all Class I work excluded or not specified in (a)(i) and (ii) of this subsection, when a negative-exposure assessment isn't available, and the exposure assessment indicates the exposure level will be at or below 1f/cc as an 8-hour time weighted average, employers must provide employees with one of the following respirators:

(i) A tight-fitting, powered, air-purifying respirator equipped with high-efficiency filters;

(ii) A full-facepiece supplied-air respirator operated in the pressure-demand mode equipped with either HEPA egress cartridges; or

(iii) An auxiliary positive-pressure, self-contained breathing apparatus.

(c) Whenever the employees are in a regulated area performing Class I asbestos work for which a negative exposure assessment isn't available, and and exposure assessment indicates that the exposure level will be above 1 f/cc as an 8-hour TWA, employers must provide a full-facepiece supplied-air respirator operated in the pressure-demand mode equipped with an auxiliary positive-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus.

Exception: In lieu of the supplied-air respirator required by subsection (4) of this section, an employer may provide and require to be worn, at no cost to the employee, a full facepiece supplied-air respirator operated in the continuous flow mode equipped with either an auxiliary positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus or a back-up HEPA filter egress cartridge where daily and historical personal monitoring data indicates the concentration of asbestos fibers is not reasonably expected to exceed 10 f/cc. The continuous flow respirator shall be operated at a minimum air flow rate of six cubic feet per minute at the facepiece using respirable air supplied as required by chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators.

(5) Respirator fit testing.

(a) For each employee wearing negative pressure respirators, employers shall perform either quantitative or qualitative face fit tests at the time of initial fitting and at least annually thereafter. The qualitative fit tests may be used only for testing the fit of half-mask respirators where they are permitted to be worn.

(b) Any supplied-air respirator facepiece equipped with a back-up HEPA filter egress cartridge shall be quantitatively fit tested (see WAC 296-62-07160 through 296-62-07162 and 296-62-07201 through 296-62-07248).

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 07-05-072 (Order 06-39) § 296-62-07715, filed 02/20/07, effective 04/01/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 99-10 (Order 98-10) 296-62-07715, filed 05/04/99, effective 09/01/99.] Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 97-19-014, 296-62-07715, filed 9/5/97, effective 11/5/97; 97-01-079, 296-62-07715, filed 12/17/96, effective 3/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), 296-62-07715, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91; 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), 296-62-07715, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89; 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), 296-62-07715, filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), 296-62-07715, filed 4/27/87.]

WAC 296-62-07717 Protective work clothing and equipment.

(1) Provision and use. If an employee is exposed to asbestos above the permissible exposure limits, or where the possibility of eye irritation exists, or for which a required negative exposure assessment is not produced and for any employee performing Class I operations, the employer shall provide at no cost to the employee and require that the employee uses appropriate protective work clothing and equipment such as, but not limited to:

(a) Coveralls or similar full-body work clothing;

(b) Gloves, head coverings, and foot coverings; and

(c) Face shields, vented goggles, or other appropriate protective equipment which complies with WAC 296-800-160.

(2) Removal and storage.

(a) The employer shall ensure that employees remove work clothing contaminated with asbestos only in change rooms provided in accordance with WAC 296-62-07719(1).

(b) The employer shall ensure that no employee takes contaminated work clothing out of the change room, except those employees authorized to do so for the purpose of laundering, maintenance, or disposal.

(c) Contaminated clothing. Contaminated clothing shall be transported in sealed impermeable bags, or other closed, impermeable containers, and be labeled in accordance with WAC 296-62-07721.

(d) Containers of contaminated protective devices or work clothing which are to be taken out of change rooms or the workplace for cleaning, maintenance, or disposal, shall bear labels in accordance with WAC 296-62-07721(6).

(3) Cleaning and replacement.

(a) The employer shall clean, launder, repair, or replace protective clothing and equipment required by this paragraph to maintain their effectiveness. The employer shall provide clean protective clothing and equipment at least weekly to each affected employee.

(b) The employer shall prohibit the removal of asbestos from protective clothing and equipment by blowing or shaking.

(c) Laundering of contaminated clothing shall be done so as to prevent the release of airborne fibers of asbestos in excess of the permissible exposure limits prescribed in WAC 296-62-07705.

(d) Any employer who gives contaminated clothing to another person for laundering shall inform such person of the requirement in (c) of this subsection to effectively prevent the release of airborne fibers of asbestos in excess of the permissible exposure limits.

(e) The employer shall inform any person who launders or cleans protective clothing or equipment contaminated with asbestos of the potentially harmful effects of exposure to asbestos.

(f) Contaminated clothing shall be transported in sealed impermeable bags, or other closed, impermeable containers, and labeled in accordance with WAC 296-62-07721.

(4) Inspection of protective clothing for construction and shipyard work.

(a) The competent person shall examine worksuits worn by employees at least once per workshift for rips or tears that may occur during performance of work.

(b) When rips or tears are detected while an employee is working, rips and tears shall be immediately mended, or the worksuit shall be immediately replaced.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 01-11-038, (Order 99-36), 296-62-07717, filed 05/09/01, effective 09/01/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 97-19-014, 296-62-07717, filed 9/5/97, effective 11/5/97; 97-01-079, 296-62-07717, filed 12/17/96, effective 3/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), 296-62-07717, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), 296-62-07717, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89; 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), 296-62-07717, filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), 296-62-07717, filed 4/27/87.]

 

WAC 296-62-07719 Hygiene facilities and practices.

(1) Change rooms.

(a) The employer shall provide clean change rooms for employees required to work in regulated areas or required by WAC 296-62-07717(1) to wear protective clothing.

Exception: In lieu of the change area requirement specified in this subsection, the employer may permit employees in Class III and Class IV asbestos work, to clean their protective clothing with a portable HEPA-equipped vacuum before such employees leave the area where maintenance was performed.

(b) The employer shall ensure that change rooms are in accordance with WAC 296-800-230, and are equipped with two separate lockers or storage facilities, so separated as to prevent contamination of the employee's street clothes from his/her protective work clothing and equipment.

(2) Showers.

(a) The employer shall ensure that employees who work in negative pressure enclosures required by WAC 296-62-07712, or who work in areas where their airborne exposure is above the permissible exposure limits prescribed in WAC 296-62-07705, shower at the end of the work shift.

(b) The employer shall provide shower facilities which comply with WAC 296-800-230.

(c) The employer shall ensure that employees who are required to shower pursuant to (a) of this subsection do not leave the workplace wearing any clothing or equipment worn during the work shift.

(3) Special requirements in addition to the other provisions of WAC 296-62-07719 for construction work defined in WAC 296-155-012 and for all shipyard work defined in WAC 296-304-010.

(a) Requirements for employees performing Class I asbestos jobs involving over 25 linear or 10 square feet of TSI or surfacing ACM and PACM.

(i) Decontamination areas: The employer shall establish a decontamination area that is adjacent and connected to the regulated area for the decontamination of such employees. The decontamination area shall consist of an equipment room, shower area, and clean room in series. The employer shall ensure that employees enter and exit the regulated area through the decontamination area.

(A) Equipment room. The equipment room shall be supplied with impermeable, labeled bags and containers for the containment and disposal of contaminated protective equipment.

(B) Shower area. Shower facilities shall be provided which comply with WAC 296-800-230, unless the employer can demonstrate that they are not feasible. The showers shall be adjacent both to the equipment room and the clean room, unless the employer can demonstrate that this location is not feasible. Where the employer can demonstrate that it is not feasible to locate the shower between the equipment room and the clean room, or where the work is performed outdoors, the employers shall ensure that employees:

(I) Remove asbestos contamination from their worksuits in the equipment room using a HEPA vacuum before proceeding to a shower that is not adjacent to the work area; or

(II) Remove their contaminated worksuits in the equipment room, then don clean worksuits, and proceed to a shower that is not adjacent to the work area.

(C) Clean change room. The clean room shall be equipped with a locker or appropriate storage container for each employee's use.

(ii) Decontamination area entry procedures. The employer shall ensure that employees:

(A) Enter the decontamination area through the clean room;

(B) Remove and deposit street clothing within a locker provided for their use; and

(C) Put on protective clothing and respiratory protection before leaving the clean room.

(D) Before entering the regulated area, the employer shall ensure that employees pass through the equipment room.

(iii) Decontamination area exit procedures. The employer shall ensure that:

(A) Before leaving the regulated area, employees shall remove all gross contamination and debris from their protective clothing;

(B) Employees shall remove their protective clothing in the equipment room and deposit the clothing in labeled impermeable bags or containers;

(C) Employees shall not remove their respirators in the equipment room;

(D) Employees shall shower prior to entering the clean room. When taking a shower, employees shall be fully wetted, including the face and hair, prior to removing the respirators;

(E) After showering, employees shall enter the clean room before changing into street clothes.

(b) Requirements for Class I work involving less than 25 linear or 10 square feet of TSI or surfacing ACM and PACM, and for Class II and Class III asbestos work operations where exposures exceed a PEL or where there is no negative exposure assessment produced before the operation.

(i) The employer shall establish an equipment room or area that is adjacent to the regulated area for the decontamination of employees and their equipment which is contaminated with asbestos which shall consist of an area covered by a impermeable drop cloth on the floor or horizontal working surface.

(ii) The area must be of sufficient size as to accommodate cleaning of equipment and removing personal protective equipment without spreading contamination beyond the area (as determined by visible accumulations).

(iii) Work clothing must be cleaned with a HEPA vacuum before it is removed.

(iv) All equipment and surfaces of containers filled with ACM must be cleaned prior to removing them from the equipment room or area.

(v) The employer shall ensure that employees enter and exit the regulated area through the equipment room or area.

(c) Requirements for Class IV work. Employers shall ensure that employees performing Class IV work within a regulated area comply with hygiene practice required of employees performing work which has a higher classification within that regulated area. Otherwise employers of employees cleaning up debris and material which is TSI or surfacing ACM or identified as PACM shall provide decontamination facilities for such employees which are required by WAC 296-62-07719 (3)(b).

(d) Decontamination area for personnel shall not be used for the transportation of asbestos debris.

(e) Waste load-out procedure. The waste load-out area as required by WAC 296-62-07723 shall be used as an area for final preparation and external decontamination of waste containers, as a short term storage area for bagged waste, and as a port for transporting waste. The employer shall ensure waste containers be free of all gross contaminated material before removal from the negative-pressure enclosure. Gross contamination shall be wiped, scraped off, or washed off containers before they are placed into a two chamber air lock which is adjacent to the negative-pressure enclosure. In the first chamber, the exterior of the waste container shall be decontaminated or placed within a second waste container, and then it shall be moved into the second chamber of the air lock for temporary storage or transferred outside of the regulated area. The second waste container shall not be reused unless thoroughly decontaminated.

(4) Lunchrooms.

(a) The employer shall provide lunchroom facilities for employees who work in areas where their airborne exposure is above the time weighted average and/or excursion limit.

(b) The employer shall ensure that lunchroom facilities have a positive pressure, filtered air supply, and are readily accessible to employees.

(c) The employer shall ensure that employees who work in areas where their airborne exposure is above the time weighted average and/or excursion limit, wash their hands and faces prior to eating, drinking, or smoking.

(d) The employer shall ensure that employees do not enter lunchroom facilities with protective work clothing or equipment unless surface asbestos fibers have been removed from the clothing or equipment by vacuuming or other method that removes dust without causing the asbestos to become airborne.

(5) Smoking in work areas. The employer shall ensure that employees do not smoke in work areas where they are occupationally exposed to asbestos because of activities in that work area.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 03-18-090 (Order 03-15), § 296-62-07719, filed 09/02/03, effective 11/01/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 97-01-079, 296-62-07719, filed 12/17/96, effective 3/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), 296-62-07719, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91; 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), 296-62-07719, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89; 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), 296-62-07719, filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), 296-62-07719, filed 4/27/87.]

WAC 296-62-07721 Communication of hazards to employees.

(1) Communication of hazards to employees. General industry requirements.

(a) Introduction. This section applies to the communication of information concerning asbestos hazards in general industry. Asbestos exposure in industry occurs in a wide variety of industrial and commercial settings. Employees who manufacture asbestos-containing products may be exposed to asbestos fibers. Employees who repair and replace automotive brakes and clutches may be exposed to asbestos fibers. In addition, employees engaged in housekeeping activities in industrial facilities with asbestos product manufacturing operations, and in public and commercial buildings with installed asbestos-containing materials may be exposed to asbestos fibers. It should be noted that employees who perform housekeeping activities during and after construction activities are covered by asbestos construction work requirements in WAC 296-62-077. Housekeeping employees, regardless of industry designation, should know whether building components they maintain may expose them to asbestos. Building owners are often the only and/or best source of information concerning the presence of previously installed asbestos-containing building materials. Therefore they, along with employers of potentially exposed employees, are assigned specific information conveying and retention duties under this section.

(b) Installed asbestos-containing material. Employers and building owners are required to treat installed TSI and sprayed-on and troweled-on surfacing materials as ACM for the purposes of this standard. These materials are designated “presumed ACM or PACM,” and are defined in WAC 296-62-07703. Asphalt and vinyl flooring installed no later than 1980 also must be treated as asbestos-containing. The employer or building owner may demonstrate that PACM and flooring materials do not contain asbestos by complying with WAC 296-62-07712 (10)(a)(ix).

(c) Duties of employers and building and facility owners.

(i) Building and facility owners must determine the presence, location, and quantity of ACM and/or PACM at the worksite. Employers and building and facility owners must exercise due diligence in complying with these requirements to inform employers and employees about the presence and location of ACM and PACM.

(ii) Before authorizing or allowing any construction, renovation, remodeling, maintenance, repair, or demolition project, an owner or owner's agent must perform, or cause to be performed, a good faith inspection to determine whether materials to be worked on or removed contain asbestos. The inspection must be documented by a written report maintained on file and made available upon request to the director.

(A) The good faith inspection must be conducted by an accredited inspector.

(B) Such good faith inspection is not required if the owner or owner's agent is reasonably certain that asbestos will not be disturbed by the project or the owner or owner's agent assumes that the suspect material contains asbestos and handles the material in accordance with WAC 296-62-07701 through 296-62-07753.

(iii) The owner or owner's agent must provide, to all contractors submitting a bid to undertake any construction, renovation, remodeling, maintenance, repair, or demolition project, the written statement either of the reasonable certainty of nondisturbance of asbestos or of assumption of the presence of asbestos. Contractors must be provided with the written report before they apply or bid to work.

(iv) Any owner or owner's agent who fails to comply with (c)(ii) and (iii) of this subsection must be subject to a mandatory fine of not less than two hundred fifty dollars for each violation. Each day the violation continues must be considered a separate violation. In addition, any construction, renovation, remodeling, maintenance, repair, or demolition which was started without meeting the requirements of this section must be halted immediately and cannot be resumed before meeting such requirements.

(v) Building and facility owners must inform employers of employees, and employers must inform employees who will perform housekeeping activities in areas which contain ACM and/or PACM of the presence and location of ACM and/or PACM in such areas which may be contacted during such activities.

(vi) Upon written or oral request, building or facility owners must make a copy of the written report required in this section available to the department of labor and industries and the collective bargaining representatives or employee representatives of any employee who may be exposed to any asbestos or asbestos-containing materials. A copy of the written report must be posted conspicuously at the location where employees report to work.

(vii) Building and facility owners must maintain records of all information required to be provided according to this section and/or otherwise known to the building owner concerning the presence, location and quantity of ACM and PACM in the building/facility. Such records must be kept for the duration of ownership and must be transferred to successive owners.

(2) Communication of hazards to employees. Requirements for construction and shipyard employment activities.

(a) Introduction. This section applies to the communication of information concerning asbestos hazards in construction and shipyard employment activities. Most asbestos-related construction and shipyard activities involve previously installed building materials. Building/vessel owners often are the only and/or best sources of information concerning them. Therefore, they, along with employers of potentially exposed employees, are assigned specific information conveying and retention duties under this section. Installed Asbestos Containing Building/Vessel Material: Employers and building/vessel owners must identify TSI and sprayed or troweled on surfacing materials as asbestos-containing unless the employer, by complying with WAC 296-62-07721(3) determines it is not asbestos containing. Asphalt or vinyl flooring/decking material installed in buildings or vessels no later than 1980 must also be considered as asbestos containing unless the employer/owner, according to WAC 296-62-07712 (10)(a)(ix) determines it is not asbestos containing. If the employer or building/vessel owner has actual knowledge or should have known, through the exercise of due diligence, that materials other than TSI and sprayed-on or troweled-on surfacing materials are asbestos containing, they must be treated as such. When communicating information to employees according to this standard, owners and employers must identify “PACM” as ACM. Additional requirements relating to communication of asbestos work on multi-employer worksites are set out in WAC 296-62-07706.

(b) Duties of building/vessel and facility owners.

(i) Before work subject to this section is begun, building/vessel and facility owners must identify the presence, location and quantity of ACM, and/or PACM at the work site. All thermal system insulation and sprayed on or troweled on surfacing materials in buildings/vessels or substrates constructed no later than 1980 must be identified as PACM. In addition, resilient flooring/decking material installed no later than 1980 must also be identified as asbestos containing.

(ii) Before authorizing or allowing any construction, renovation, remodeling, maintenance, repair, or demolition project, a building/vessel and facility owner or owner's agent must perform, or cause to be performed, a good faith inspection to determine whether materials to be worked on or removed contain asbestos. The inspection must be documented by a written report maintained on file and made available upon request to the director.

(A) The good faith inspection must be conducted by an accredited inspector.

(B) Such good faith inspection is not required if the building/vessel and facility owner or owner's agent assumes that the suspect material contains asbestos and handles the material in accordance with WAC 296-62-07701 through 296-62-07753 or if the owner or the owner's agent is reasonably certain that asbestos will not be disturbed by the project.

(iii) The building/vessel and facility owner or owner's agent must provide, to all contractors submitting a bid to undertake any construction, renovation, remodeling, maintenance, repair, or demolition project, the written statement either of the reasonable certainty of nondisturbance of asbestos or of assumption of the presence of asbestos. Contractors must be provided the written report before they apply or bid on work.

(iv) Any building/vessel and facility owner or owners agent who fails to comply with WAC 296-62-07721 (2)(b)(ii) and (iii) must be subject to a mandatory fine of not less than two hundred fifty dollars for each violation. Each day the violation continues must be considered a separate violation. In addition, any construction, renovation, remodeling, maintenance, repair, or demolition which was started without meeting the requirements of this section must be halted immediately and cannot be resumed before meeting such requirements.

(v) Upon written or oral request, building/vessel and facility owner or owner's agent must make a copy of the written report required in this section available to the department of labor and industries and the collective bargaining representatives or employee representatives of any employee who may be exposed to any asbestos or asbestos-containing materials. A copy of the written report must be posted conspicuously at the location where employees report to work.

(vi) Building/vessel and facility owner or owner's agent must notify in writing the following persons of the presence, location and quantity of ACM or PACM, at work sites in their buildings/facilities/vessels.

(A) Prospective employers applying or bidding for work whose employees reasonably can be expected to work in or adjacent to areas containing such material;

(B) Employees of the owner who will work in or adjacent to areas containing such material;

(C) On multi-employer worksites, all employers of employees who will be performing work within or adjacent to areas containing such materials;

(D) Tenants who will occupy areas containing such materials.

(c) Duties of employers whose employees perform work subject to this standard in or adjacent to areas containing ACM and PACM. Building/vessel and facility owner or owner's agents whose employees perform such work must comply with these provisions to the extent applicable.

(i) Before work subject to this standard is begun, building/vessel and facility owner or owner's agents must determine the presence, location, and quantity of ACM and/or PACM at the work site according to WAC 296-62-07721 (2)(b).

(ii) Before work under this standard is performed employers of employees who will perform such work must inform the following persons of the location and quantity of ACM and/or PACM present at the work site and the precautions to be taken to insure that airborne asbestos is confined to the area.

(A) Owners of the building/vessel or facility;

(B) Employees who will perform such work and employers of employees who work and/or will be working in adjacent areas;

(iii) Upon written or oral request, a copy of the written report required in this section must be made available to the department of labor and industries and the collective bargaining representatives or employee representatives of any employee who may be exposed to any asbestos or asbestos-containing materials. A copy of the written report must be posted conspicuously at the location where employees report to work.

(iv) Within 10 days of the completion of such work, the employer whose employees have performed work subject to this standard, must inform the building/vessel or facility owner and employers of employees who will be working in the area of the current location and quantity of PACM and/or ACM remaining in the former regulated area and final monitoring results, if any.

(d) In addition to the above requirements, all employers who discover ACM and/or PACM on a work site must convey information concerning the presence, location and quantity of such newly discovered ACM and/or PACM to the owner and to other employers of employees working at the work site, within 24 hours of the discovery.

(e) No contractor may commence any construction, renovation, remodeling, maintenance, repair, or demolition project without receiving a copy of the written response or statement required by WAC 296-62-07721 (2)(b). Any contractor who begins any project without the copy of the written report or statement will be subject to a mandatory fine of not less than two hundred fifty dollars per day. Each day the violation continues will be considered a separate violation.

(3) Criteria to rebut the designation of installed material as PACM.

(a) At any time, an employer and/or building/vessel owner may demonstrate, for purposes of this standard, that PACM does not contain asbestos. Building/vessel owners and/or employers are not required to communicate information about the presence of building material for which such a demonstration according to the requirements of (b) of this subsection has been made. However, in all such cases, the information, data and analysis supporting the determination that PACM does not contain asbestos, must be retained according to WAC 296-62-07727.

(b) An employer or owner may demonstrate that PACM does not contain asbestos by the following:

(i) Having a completed inspection conducted according to the requirements of AHERA (40 CFR Part 763, Subpart E) which demonstrates that the material is not ACM;

(ii) Performing tests of the material containing PACM which demonstrate that no asbestos is present in the material. Such tests must include analysis of bulk samples collected in the manner described in 40 CFR 763.86, Asbestos-containing materials in schools. The tests, evaluation and sample collection must be conducted by an accredited inspector. Analysis of samples must be performed by persons or laboratories with proficiency demonstrated by current successful participation in a nationally recognized testing program such as the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) of the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) or the Round Robin for bulk samples administered by the American Industrial Hygiene Associate (AIHA), or an equivalent nationally recognized Round Robin testing program.

(4) At the entrance to mechanical rooms/areas in which employees reasonably can be expected to enter and which contain TSI or surfacing ACM and PACM, the building/vessel and facility owner or owner's agent must post signs which identify the material which is present, its location, and appropriate work practices which, if followed, will ensure that ACM and/or PACM will not be disturbed. The employer shall ensure, to the extent feasible, that employees who come in contact with these signs can comprehend them. Means to ensure employee comprehension may include the use of foreign languages, pictographs, graphics, and awareness training.

(5) Warning signs.

(a) Warning signs that demarcate the regulated area must be provided and displayed at each location where a regulated area is required. In addition, warning signs must be posted at all approaches to regulated areas and be posted at such a distance from such a location that an employee may read the signs and take necessary protective steps before entering the area marked by the signs.

(b) The warning signs required by (a) of this subsection must bear the following information:

DANGER

ASBESTOS

CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

RESPIRATORS AND PROTECTIVE CLOTHING ARE REQUIRED IN THIS AREA

(c) The employer shall ensure that employees working in and contiguous to regulated areas comprehend the warning signs required to be posted by (a) of this subsection. Means to ensure employee comprehension may include the use of foreign languages, pictographs, and graphics.

(6) Warning labels.

(a) Warning labels must be affixed to all products containing asbestos including raw materials, mixtures, scrap, waste, debris, and other products containing asbestos fibers, and to their containers including waste containers. Installed asbestos products must contain a visible label, except where such a label would clearly not be feasible.

(b) Labels must be printed in large, bold letters on a contrasting background.

(c) The labels must comply with the requirements of WAC 296-800-170, and must include the following information:

DANGER

CONTAINS ASBESTOS FIBERS

AVOID CREATING DUST

CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD

AVOID BREATHING AIRBORNE ASBESTOS FIBERS

(7) The provisions for labels required by subsection (6)(a) of this section or for material safety data sheets required by subsection (8) of this section do not apply where:

(a) Asbestos fibers have been modified by a bonding agent, coating, binder, or other material, provided that the manufacturer can demonstrate that during any reasonably foreseeable use, handling, storage, disposal, processing, or transportation, no airborne concentrations of fibers of asbestos in excess of the excursion limit will be released; or

(b) Asbestos is present in a product in concentrations less than 1.0 percent by weight.

(8) Material safety data sheets. Employers who are manufacturers or importers of asbestos, or asbestos products must comply with the requirements regarding development of material safety data sheets as specified in WAC 296-62-05413, except as provided by subsection (7) of this section.

(9) When a building/vessel owner/or employer identifies previously installed PACM and/or ACM, labels or signs must be affixed or posted so that employees will be notified of what materials contain PACM and/or ACM. The employer must attach such labels in areas where they will clearly be noticed by employees who are likely to be exposed, such as at the entrance to mechanical rooms/areas. Signs required by subsection (5)(a) of this section may be posted in lieu of labels so long as they contain information required for labeling. The employer must ensure, to the extent feasible, that employees who come in contact with these signs can comprehend them. Means to ensure employee comprehension may include the use of foreign languages, pictographs, graphics, and awareness training.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 01-11-038, (Order 99-36), 296-62-07721, filed 05/09/01, effective 09/01/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, .050, RCW 49.26.040 and RCW 49.26.130. 99-17-026 (Order 98-35), 296-62-07721, filed 08/10/99, effective 11/10/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 97-19-014, 296-62-07721, filed 9/5/97, effective 11/5/97; 97-01-079, 296-62-07721, filed 12/17/96, effective 3/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 93-01-005 (Order 92-20), 296-62-07721, filed 12/2/92, effective 1/15/93; 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), 296-62-07721, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91; 89-21-018 (Order 89-10), 296-62-07721, filed 10/10/89, effective 11/24/89; 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), 296-62-07721, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89; 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), 96-62-07721, filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), 296-62-07721, filed 4/27/87.]

WAC 296-62-07722 Employee information and training.

(1) Certification.

(a) Only certified asbestos workers may work on an asbestos project as required in WAC 296-65-010 and 296-65-030.

(b) Only certified asbestos supervisors may supervise asbestos abatement projects as required in WAC 296-65-012 and 296-65-030.

(c) In cases where certification requirements of chapter 296-65 WAC do not apply, all employees must be trained according to the provisions of this section regardless of their exposure levels.

(d) Certification is not required for asbestos work on materials containing less than one percent asbestos.

(2) Training must be provided prior to or at the time of initial assignment, unless the employee has received equivalent training within the previous twelve months, and at least annually thereafter.

(3) Asbestos projects.

(a) Class I work must be considered an asbestos project. Only certified asbestos workers may do this work.

(b) Only certified workers may conduct Class II asbestos work that is considered an asbestos project.

(i) The following Class II asbestos work must be considered asbestos projects:

(A) All Class II asbestos work where critical barriers, equivalent isolation methods, or negative pressure enclosures are required; or

(B) All Class II asbestos work where asbestos containing materials do not stay intact (including removal of vinyl asbestos floor (VAT) or roofing materials by mechanical methods such as chipping, grinding, or sanding).

(ii) The following Class II asbestos work is not considered an asbestos project and is excluded from asbestos worker certification:

(A) All Class II asbestos work involving intact asbestos containing materials (for example, intact roofing materials, bituminous or asphalt pipeline coatings, and intact flooring/decking materials);

(B) All Class II asbestos work of less than one square foot of asbestos containing materials; or

(C) All Class II asbestos work involving asbestos-cement water pipe when the work is done in accordance with training approved by the department through the asbestos certification program (see WAC 296-65-015(4)).

(iii) Asbestos work involving the removal of one square foot or more of intact roofing materials by mechanical sawing or heavy equipment must meet the following requirements:

(A) Only certified asbestos workers may conduct mechanical sawing of intact roofing material;

(B) Noncertified asbestos workers may handle roofing dust, material and debris;

(C) Operators of heavy equipment (such as track hoes with clam shells and excavators) do not need to be certified asbestos workers in the removal or demolition of intact roofing materials.

(c) Only certified asbestos workers may conduct all Class III and Class IV asbestos work that is considered an asbestos project.

(i) The following asbestos work is considered an asbestos project:

(A) All Class III asbestos work where one square foot or more of asbestos containing materials that do not stay intact;

(B) All Class IV asbestos work where one square foot or more of asbestos containing materials that do not stay intact; or

(C) All Class III and Class IV asbestos work with pipe insulation.

(ii) Except for a project involving pipe insulation work, any project involving only Class III or Class IV asbestos work with less than one square foot of asbestos containing materials is not considered an asbestos project.

(4) Training requirements for asbestos work that is not considered an asbestos project or is excluded from asbestos worker certification.

(a) Class II asbestos work.

(i) Employers must provide eight-hours of training to employees who perform asbestos work on one generic category of asbestos containing materials (ACM). When performing asbestos work in more than one category of asbestos containing materials, additional training must be used to supplement the first eight hour training course.

(ii) The training course must include:

  • Hands-on training that applies to the category of asbestos containing materials,
  • Specific work practices and engineering controls related to the category of asbestos containing materials present as specified in WAC 296-62-07712, and
  • All the minimum elements of subsection (5) of this section.

(b) Class III asbestos work (maintenance and custodial work in buildings containing asbestos containing materials).

(i) Employers must provide training with curriculum and training methods equivalent to the 16-hour operations and maintenance course developed by the EPA. (See 40 CFR 763.92(a)(2).) For those employees whose only affected work is Class II work as described in subsection (4)(a)(i) of this section, employers must meet this 16-hour training requirement or provide training that meets the eight hours Class II requirements in subsection (4)(a) of this section.

(ii) Sixteen hours of training must include:

  • Hands-on training in the use of respiratory protection and work practices, and
  • All the minimum elements of subsection (5) of this section.

(c) Class IV asbestos work (maintenance and custodial work in buildings containing asbestos-containing materials).

(i) Employers must provide at least two hours of training with curriculum and training methods equivalent to the awareness training course developed by the EPA.

(ii) Training must include:

  • Available information concerning the location of PACM, ACM, asbestos-containing flooring materials or flooring materials where the absence of asbestos has not been certified,
  • Instruction on how to recognize damaged, deteriorated, and delimitation of asbestos containing building materials, and
  • All of the minimum elements of subsection (5) of this section.

(5) The training program must be conducted in a manner which the employee is able to understand. The employer must ensure that each employee is informed of the following:

(a) The health effects associated with asbestos exposure;

(b) The relationship between smoking and exposure to asbestos producing lung cancer;

(c) Methods of recognizing asbestos and quantity, location, manner of use, release (including the requirements of WAC 296-62-07721 (1)(c) and (2)(b) to presume certain building materials contain asbestos), and storage of asbestos and the specific nature of operations which could result in exposure to asbestos;

(d) The engineering controls and work practices associated with the employee's job assignment;

(e) The specific procedures implemented to protect employees from exposure to asbestos, such as appropriate work practices, housekeeping procedures, hygiene facilities, decontamination procedures, emergency and clean-up procedures (including where Class III and IV work is performed, the contents “Managing Asbestos In Place” (EPA 20T-2003, July 1990) or its equivalent in content), personal protective equipment to be used, waste disposal procedures, and any necessary instructions in the use of these controls and procedures;

(f) The purpose, proper use, and limitations of protective clothing;

(g) The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program required by WAC 296-62-07725;

(h) The content of this standard, including appendices;

(i) The names, addresses and phone numbers of public health organizations which provide information, materials, and/or conduct programs concerning smoking cessation. The employer may distribute the list of such organizations contained in Appendix I, to comply with this requirement;

(j) The requirements for posting signs and affixing labels and the meaning of the required legends for such signs and labels; and

(k) The purpose, proper use, limitations, and other training requirements for respiratory protection as required by chapter 296-842 WAC (see WAC 296-842-11005, 296-842-16005, and 296-842-19005).

(6) The employer must also provide, at no cost to employees who perform housekeeping operations in a facility which contains ACM or PACM, an asbestos awareness training course to all employees who are or will work in areas where ACM and/or PACM is present who work in buildings containing asbestos-containing materials, which must, at a minimum, contain the following elements:

  • Health effects of asbestos,
  • Locations of ACM and PACM in the building/facility,
  • Recognition of ACM and PACM damage and deterioration,
  • Requirements in this standard relating to housekeeping, and
  • Proper response to fiber release episodes.
  • Each such employee must be so trained at least once a year.

(7) Access to information and training materials.

(a) The employer must make a copy of this standard and its appendices readily available without cost to all affected employees.

(b) The employer must provide, upon request, all materials relating to the employee information and training program to the director.

(c) The employer must inform all employees concerning the availability of self-help smoking cessation program material. Upon employee request, the employer must distribute such material, consisting of NIH Publication No. 89-1647, or equivalent self-help material, which is approved or published by a public health organization listed in Appendix I, WAC 296-62-07751.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 05-03-093 (Order 04-41), § 296-62-07722, filed 01/18/05, effective 03/01/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050 and RCW 49.26.130. 00-06-075 (Order 99-40), 296-62-07722, filed 03/01/00, effective 04/10/00. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, .050, RCW 49.26.040 and RCW 49.26.130. 99-17-026 (Order 98-35), 296-62-07722, filed 08/10/99, effective 11/10/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 99-10 (Order 98-10) 296-62-07222, filed 05/04/99, effective 09/01/99.] Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 97-01-079, 296-62-07722, filed 12/17/96, effective 3/1/97.]

 

WAC 296-62-07723 Housekeeping.

(1) All surfaces shall be maintained as free as practicable of accumulations of dusts and waste containing asbestos.

(2) All spills and sudden releases of material containing asbestos shall be cleaned up as soon as possible.

(3) Surfaces contaminated with asbestos may not be cleaned by the use of compressed air.

(4) Vacuuming. HEPA-filtered vacuuming equipment shall be used for vacuuming. The equipment shall be used and emptied in a manner which minimizes the reentry of asbestos into the workplace.

(5) Shoveling, dry sweeping, and dry clean-up of asbestos may be used only where vacuuming and/or wet cleaning are not feasible.

(6) Waste disposal. Waste, scrap, debris, bags, containers, equipment, and clothing contaminated with asbestos consigned for disposal, shall be collected and disposed of in sealed impermeable bags, or other closed, impermeable containers. To avoid breakage, bags shall be at least six mils in thickness and shall not be dragged or slid across rough or abrasive surfaces.

(7) Waste removal. Whenever a negative-pressure enclosure is required by WAC 296-62-07712, the employer wherever feasible, shall establish a waste-load-out area that is adjacent and connected to the negative-pressure enclosure, constructed of a two chamber air lock, for the decontamination and removal of asbestos debris.

(8) Deterioration. Asbestos and asbestos containing material which has become damaged or deteriorated shall be repaired, enclosed, encapsulated, or removed.

(9) Care of asbestos-containing flooring/decking material.

(a) Sanding of asbestos-containing floor/deck material is prohibited.

(b) Stripping of finishes shall be conducted using low abrasion pads at speeds lower than 300 rpm and wet methods.

(c) Burnishing or dry buffing may be performed only on asbestos-containing flooring/decking which has sufficient finish so that the pad cannot contact the asbestos-containing material.

(d) Dust and debris in an area containing TSI or surfacing ACM/PACM or visibly deteriorated ACM, shall not be dusted or swept dry, or vacuumed without using a HEPA filter.

(10) Waste and debris and accompanying dust in an area containing accessible thermal system insulation or surfacing material or visibly deteriorated ACM:

(a) Shall not be dusted or swept dry, or vacuumed without using a HEPA filter;

(b) Shall be promptly cleaned up and disposed of in leak tight containers.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 97-01-079, 296-62-07723, filed 12/17/96, effective 3/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), 296-62-07723, filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), 296-62-07723, filed 4/27/87.]

WAC 296-62-07725 Medical surveillance.

(1) General.

(a) Employees covered. The employer shall institute a medical surveillance program for all employees who are or will be exposed to airborne concentrations of fibers of asbestos at or above the permissible exposure limits. Exception.

Employers in the construction or shipyard industries shall institute a medical surveillance program for all employees who for a combined total of 30 or more days per year are engaged in Class I, II, and III work, or are exposed at or above the permissible exposure limit for combined 30 days or more per year; or who are required by the standard to wear negative pressure respirators. For the purpose of this subsection, any day in which an employee engaged in Class II or III work or a combination thereof for one hour or less (taking into account the entire time spent on the removal operation, including cleanup), and, while doing so adheres to the work practices specified in this standard, shall not be counted.

(b) Examination by a physician.

(i) The employer shall ensure that all medical examinations and procedures are performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician, and shall be provided without cost to the employee and at a reasonable time and place.

(ii) Persons other than licensed physicians, who administer the pulmonary function testing required by this section, shall complete a training course in spirometry sponsored by an appropriate academic or professional institution.

(2) Preplacement examinations.

(a) Except as provided by WAC 296-62-07725 (1)(a), before an employee is assigned to an occupation exposed to airborne concentrations of asbestos, a preplacement medical examination shall be provided or made available by the employer. Examinations administered using the thirty or more days per year criteria of WAC 296-62-07725 (1)(a) shall be given within ten working days following the thirtieth day of exposure. Examinations must be given prior to assignment of employees to areas where negative-pressure respirators are worn.

(b) All examinations shall include, as a minimum, a medical and work history: A complete physical examination of all systems with special emphasis on the pulmonary, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal systems; completion of the respiratory disease standardized questionnaire in WAC 296-62-07741, Appendix D, Part 1; a chest roentgenogram (posterior-anterior 14x17 inches); pulmonary function tests to include forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1.0); and any additional tests deemed appropriate by the examining physician. Interpretation and classification of chest roentgenograms shall be conducted in accordance with WAC 296-62-07743, Appendix E.

(3) Periodic examinations.

(a) Periodic medical examinations shall be made available annually.

(b) The scope of the medical examination shall be in conformance with the protocol established in subsection (2)(b) of this section, except that the frequency of chest roentgenograms shall be conducted in accordance with Table 2 of this section, and the abbreviated standardized questionnaire contained in WAC 296-62-07741, Appendix D, Part 2, shall be administered to the employee.

TABLE 2--FREQUENCY OF CHEST ROENTGENOGRAMS

Year since first exposure

Age of employee

 

15 to 35

35+ to 45

45+

0 to 10

Every 5 years

Every 5 years

Every 5 years

10+

Every 5 years

Every 2 years

Every 1 year

(c) If the examining physician determines that any of the examinations should be provided more frequently than specified, the employer shall provide such examinations to affected employees at the frequencies specified by the physician.

(4) Termination of employment examinations.

(a) The employer shall provide, or make available, a termination of employment medical examination for any employee who has been exposed to airborne concentrations of fibers of asbestos at or above the permissible exposure limits.

(b) The medical examination shall be in accordance with the requirements of the periodic examinations stipulated in subsection (3) of this section, and shall be given within thirty calendar days before or after the date of termination of employment.

(5) Recent examinations. No medical examination is required of any employee, if adequate records show that the employee has been examined in accordance with subsection (2), (3), or (4) of this section within the past one-year period.

(6) Information provided to the physician. The employer shall provide the following information to the examining physician:

(a) A copy of this standard and Appendices D, E, and H of WAC 296-62-07741, 296-62-07743, and 296-62-07749 respectively.

(b) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's exposure.

(c) The employee's representative exposure level or anticipated exposure level.

(d) A description of any personal protective and respiratory equipment used or to be used.

(e) Information from previous medical examinations of the affected employee that is not otherwise available to the examining physician.

(7) Physician's written opinion.

(a) The employer shall obtain a written opinion from the examining physician. This written opinion shall contain the results of the medical examination and shall include:

(i) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical conditions that would place the employee at an increased risk of material health impairment from exposure to asbestos;

(ii) Any recommended limitations on the employee or upon the use of personal protective equipment such as clothing or respirators;

(iii) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the results of the medical examination and of any medical conditions resulting from asbestos exposure that require further explanation or treatment; and

(iv) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the increased risk of lung cancer attributable to the combined effect of smoking and asbestos exposure.

(b) The employer shall instruct the physician not to reveal in the written opinion given to the employer specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure to asbestos.

(c) The employer shall provide a copy of the physician's written opinion to the affected employee within thirty days from its receipt.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 06-05-027 (Order 05-45), § 296-62-07725, filed 02/07/06, effective 04/01/06. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 97-19-014, 296-62-07725, filed 9/5/97, effective 11/5/97; 97-01-079, 296-62-07725, filed 12/17/96, effective 3/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), 296-62-07725, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91; 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), 296-62-07725, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89; 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), 296-62-07725, filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), 296-62-07725, filed 4/27/87.]

WAC 296-62-07727 Recordkeeping.

(1) Exposure measurements.

(a) The employer shall keep an accurate record of all measurements taken to monitor employee exposure to asbestos as prescribed in WAC 296-62-07709.

(b) This record shall include at least the following information:

(i) Name of employer;

(ii) Name of person conducting monitoring;

(iii) The date of measurement;

(iv) Address of operation or activity;

(v) Description of the operation or activity involving exposure to asbestos that is being monitored;

(vi) Personal or area sample;

(vii) Name, Social Security number, and exposure level of the employees whose exposures are represented;

(viii) Type of protective devices worn, if any;

(ix) Pump calibration date and flow rate;

(x) Total volume of air sampled;

(xi) Name and address of analytical laboratory;

(xii) Number, duration, and results (f/cc) of samples taken;

(xiii) Date of analysis; and

(xiv) Sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy.

(c) The employer shall maintain this record for the duration of employment plus thirty years, in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.

(2) Objective data for exempted operations.

(a) Where the processing, use, or handling of products made from or containing asbestos is exempted from other requirements of this section under WAC 296-62-07709 (2)(a)(iii) and (3)(b)(i), the employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of objective data reasonably relied upon in support of the exemption.

(b) The record shall include at least the following:

(i) The product qualifying for exemption;

(ii) The source of the objective data;

(iii) The testing protocol, results of testing, and/or analysis of the material for the release of asbestos;

(iv) A description of the operation exempted and how the data support the exemption; and

(v) Other data relevant to the operations, materials, processing, or employee exposures covered by the exemption.

(c) The employer shall maintain this record for the duration of the employer's reliance upon such objective data.

Note: The employer may utilize the services of competent organizations such as industry trade associations and employee associations to maintain the records required by this section.

(3) Medical surveillance.

(a) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical surveillance by WAC 296-62-07725 (1)(a), in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.

(b) The record shall include at least the following information:

(i) The name and Social Security number of the employee;

(ii) Physician's written opinions;

(iii) Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to asbestos;

(iv) A copy of the information provided to the physician as required by WAC 296-62-07725(6); and

(v) A copy of the employee's medical examination results, including the medical history, questionnaire responses, results of any tests, and physicians recommendations.

(c) The employer shall ensure that this record is maintained for the duration of employment plus thirty years, in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.

(4) Training. The employer shall maintain all employee training records for one year beyond the last date of employment of that employee.

(5) Availability.

(a) The employer, upon written request, shall make all records required to be maintained by this section available to the director for examination and copying.

(b) The employer, upon request, shall make any exposure records required by subsection (1) of this section available for examination and copying to affected employees, former employees, designated representatives, and the director, in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.

(c) The employer, upon request, shall make employee medical records required by subsection (2) of this section available for examination and copying to the subject employee, to anyone having the specific written consent of the subject employee, and the director, in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.

(6) Transfer of records.

(a) The employer shall comply with the requirements concerning transfer of records set forth in chapter 296-802 WAC.

(b) Whenever the employer ceases to do business and there is no successor employer to receive and retain the records for the prescribed period, the employer shall notify the director at least ninety days prior to disposal of records and, upon request, transmit them to the director.

(7) Data to rebut PACM. Where the building owner and employer have relied on data to demonstrate that PACM is not asbestos-containing, such data shall be maintained for as long as they are relied upon to rebut the presumption.

(8) Records of required notifications. Where the building owner has communicated and received information concerning the identification, location and quantity of ACM and PACM, written records of such notifications and their content shall be maintained by the building owner for the duration of ownership and shall be transferred to successive owners of such buildings/facilities.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050 and RCW 49.26.130. 00-06-075 (Order 99-40), 296-62-07727, filed 03/01/00, effective 04/10/00. Statutory Authority: Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 97-01-079, 296-62-07727, filed 12/17/96, effective 3/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), 296-62-07727, filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), 296-62-07727, filed 4/27/87.]

 

WAC 296-62-07728 Competent person.

(1) General. For all construction and shipyard work covered by this standard, the employer must designate a competent person, having the qualifications and authorities for ensuring worker safety and health as required by chapter 296-155 WAC.

(2) Required inspections by the competent person. WAC 296-155-110(9) which requires health and safety prevention programs to provide for frequent and regular inspections on the job sites, materials, and equipment to be made by the competent person, is incorporated.

(3) Additional inspections. In addition, the competent person must make frequent and regular inspections of the job sites in order to perform the duties set out below in this section. For Class I jobs, on-site inspections must be made at least once during each work shift, and at any time at employee request. For Class II and III jobs, on-site inspections must be made at intervals sufficient to assess whether conditions have changed, and at any reasonable time at employee request.

(4) On all worksites where employees are engaged in Class I or II asbestos work, the competent person designated in accordance with WAC 296-62-07712 must perform or supervise the following duties, as applicable:

(a) Set up the regulated area, enclosure, or other containment;

(b) Ensure (by on-site inspection) the integrity of the enclosure or containment;

(c) Set up procedures to control entry and exit from the enclosure and/or area;

(d) Supervise all employee exposure monitoring required by this section and ensure that it is conducted as required by WAC 296-62-07709;

(e) Ensure that employees working within the enclosure and/or using glovebags wear protective clothing and respirators as required by WAC 296-62-07715 and 296-62-07717;

(f) Ensure through on-site supervision, that employees set up and remove engineering controls, use work practices and personal protective equipment in compliance with all requirements;

(g) Ensure that employees use the hygiene facilities and observe the decontamination procedures specified in WAC 296-62-07719;

(h) Ensure that through on-site inspection engineering controls are functioning properly and employees are using proper work practices; and

(i) Ensure that notification requirements in WAC 296-62-07721 are met.

(5) Training for competent person.

(a) For Class I and II asbestos work the competent person must be trained in all aspects of asbestos removal and handling, including:

  • Abatement,
  • Installation,
  • Removal and handling,
  • The contents of this standard,
  • The identification of asbestos,
  • Removal procedures where appropriate, and
  • Other practices for reducing the hazard.

Such training must be the certified asbestos supervisor training specified in WAC 296-65-003, 296-65-012, and 296-65-030.

(b) For Class III and IV asbestos work:

(i) The competent person must be certified as an asbestos supervisor as prescribed in WAC 296-65-012 and 296-65-030 for Class III and IV work involving an asbestos project of 3 square feet or 3 linear feet or more of asbestos containing material.

(ii) For Class III and IV asbestos work involving less than 3 square feet or 3 linear feet of asbestos containing material, the competent person must be trained in:

  • Aspects of asbestos handling appropriate for the nature of the work, to include procedures for setting up glove bags and mini-enclosures.
  • Practices for reducing asbestos exposures.
  • Use of wet methods,
  • The contents of this standard, and
  • The identification of asbestos.

Such training must include successful completion of a course equivalent in curriculum and training method to the 16-hour Operations and Maintenance course developed by EPA for maintenance and custodial workers (see 40 CFR 763.92 (a)(2)) or its equivalent in stringency, content and length.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, .050, RCW 49.26.040 and RCW 49.26.130. 99-17-026 (Order 98-35), 296-62-07728, filed 08/10/99, effective 11/10/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 97-19-014, 296-62-07728, filed 9/5/97, effective 11/5/97; 97-01-079, 296-62-07728, filed 12/17/96, effective 3/1/97.]

WAC 296-62-07733 Appendices.

(1) Appendices A, D, E, and F to this part are incorporated as part of this section and the contents of these appendices are mandatory.

(2) Appendices B, G, H, I, J and K to this part are informational and are not intended to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed or to detract from any existing obligations.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 99-10 (Order 98-10) 296-62-07733, filed 05/04/99, effective 09/01/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 97-01-079, 296-62-07733, filed 12/17/96, effective 3/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), 296-62-07733, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91; 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), 296-62-07733, filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), 296-62-07733, filed 4/27/87.]

WAC 296-62-07735 Appendix A--WISHA reference method--Mandatory.

This mandatory appendix specifies the procedure for analyzing air samples for asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite, and actinolite and specifies quality control procedures that must be implemented by laboratories performing the analysis. The sampling and analytical methods described below represent the elements of the available monitoring methods (such as Appendix B to this section, the most current version of the WISHA method ID-60, or the most current version of the NIOSH 7400 method) which WISHA considers to be essential to achieve adequate employee exposure monitoring while allowing employers to use methods that are already established within their organizations. All employers who are required to conduct air monitoring under WAC 296-62-07709 are required to utilize analytical laboratories that use this procedure, or an equivalent method, for collecting and analyzing samples.

(1) Sampling and analytical procedure.

(a) The sampling medium for air samples must be mixed cellulose ester filter membranes. These must be designated by the manufacturer as suitable for asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite, and actinolite counting. See below for rejection of blanks.

(b) The preferred collection device is the 25-mm diameter cassette with an open-faced 50-mm electrically conductive extension cowl. The 37-mm cassette may be used if necessary but only if written justification for the need to use the 37-mm filter cassette accompanies the sample results in the employee's exposure monitoring record. Do not reuse or reload cassettes for asbestos sample collection.

(c) An air flow rate between 0.5 liter/min and 4.0 liters/min must be selected for the 25-mm cassette. If the 37-mm cassette is used, an air flow rate between 1 liter/min and 4.0 liters/min must be selected.

(d) Where possible, a sufficient air volume for each air sample must be collected to yield between one hundred and one thousand three hundred fibers per square millimeter on the membrane filter. If a filter darkens in appearance or if loose dust is seen on the filter, a second sample must be started.

(e) Ship the samples in a rigid container with sufficient packing material to prevent dislodging the collected fibers. Packing material that has a high electrostatic charge on its surface (e.g., expanded polystyrene) cannot be used because such material can cause loss of fibers to the sides of the cassette.

(f) Calibrate each personal sampling pump before and after use with a representative filter cassette installed between the pump and the calibration devices.

(g) Personal samples must be taken in the “breathing zone” of the employee (i.e., attached to or near the collar or lapel near the worker's face).

(h) Fiber counts must be made by positive phase contrast using a microscope with an 8 to 10 X eyepiece and a 40 to 45 X objective for a total magnification of approximately 400 X and a numerical aperture of 0.65 to 0.75. The microscope shall also be fitted with a green or blue filter.

(i) The microscope must be fitted with a Walton-Beckett eyepiece graticule calibrated for a field diameter of one hundred micrometers (+/-2 micrometers).

(j) The phase-shift detection limit of the microscope must be about 3 degrees measured using the HSE phase shift test slide as outlined below.

(i) Place the test slide on the microscope stage and center it under the phase objective.

(ii) Bring the blocks of grooved lines into focus.

Note: The slide consists of seven sets of grooved lines (ca. 20 grooves to each block) in descending order of visibility from sets one to seven, seven being the least visible. The requirements for asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite, and actinolite counting are that the microscope optics must resolve the grooved lines in set three completely, although they may appear somewhat faint, and that the grooved lines in sets six and seven must be invisible. Sets four and five must be at least partially visible but may vary slightly in visibility between microscopes. A microscope that fails to meet these requirements has either too low or too high a resolution to be used for asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite, and actinolite counting.

(iii) If the image deteriorates, clean and adjust the microscope optics. If the problem persists, consult the microscope manufacturer.

(k) Each set of samples taken will include ten percent blanks or a minimum of two blanks. These blanks must come from the same lot as the filters used for sample collection. The field blank results must be averaged and subtracted from the analytical results before reporting. Any samples represented by a blank having a fiber count in excess of the detection limit of the method being used must be rejected.

(l) The samples must be mounted by the acetone/triacetin method or a method with an equivalent index of refraction and similar clarity.

(m) Observe the following counting rules.

(i) Count only fibers equal to or longer than five micrometers. Measure the length of curved fibers along the curve.

(ii) Count all particles as asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite, and actinolite that have a length-to-width ratio (aspect ratio) of three to one or greater.

(iii) Fibers lying entirely within the boundary of the Walton-Beckett graticule field must receive a count of one. Fibers crossing the boundary once, having one end within the circle, must receive the count of one-half. Do not count any fiber that crosses the graticule boundary more than once. Reject and do not count any other fibers even though they may be visible outside the graticule area.

(iv) Count bundles of fibers as one fiber unless individual fibers can be identified by observing both ends of an individual fiber.

(v) Count enough graticule fields to yield 100 fibers. Count a minimum of 20 fields; stop counting at 100 fields regardless of fiber count.

(n) Blind recounts must be conducted at the rate of ten percent.

(2) Quality control procedures.

(a) Intralaboratory program. Each laboratory and/or each company with more than one microscopist counting slides must establish a statistically designed quality assurance program involving blind recounts and comparisons between microscopists to monitor the variability of counting by each microscopist and between microscopists. In a company with more than one laboratory, the program must include all laboratories and must also evaluate the laboratory-to-laboratory variability.

(b) Interlaboratory program.

(i) Each laboratory analyzing asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite, and actinolite samples for compliance determination shall implement an interlaboratory quality assurance program that as a minimum includes participation of at least two other independent laboratories. Each laboratory must participate in round robin testing at least once every six months with at least all the other laboratories in its interlaboratory quality assurance group. Each laboratory must submit slides typical of its own work load for use in this program. The round robin shall be designed and results analyzed using appropriate statistical methodology.

(ii) All laboratories should participate in a national sample testing scheme such as the Proficiency Analytical Testing Program (PAT), the Asbestos Registry sponsored by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA).

(c) All individuals performing asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite, and actinolite analysis must have taken the NIOSH course for sampling and evaluating airborne asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite, and actinolite dust or an equivalent course, recognized by the department.

(d) When the use of different microscopes contributes to differences between counters and laboratories, the effect of the different microscope must be evaluated and the microscope must be replaced, as necessary.

(e) Current results of these quality assurance programs must be posted in each laboratory to keep the microscopists informed.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, .050, RCW 49.26.040 and RCW 49.26.130. 99-17-026 (Order 98-35), 296-62-07735, filed 08/10/99, effective 11/10/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 97-01-079, 296-62-07735, filed 12/17/96, effective 3/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), 296-62-07735, filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), 296-62-07735, filed 4/27/87.]

 

WAC 296-62-07737 Appendix B--Detailed procedure for asbestos sampling and analysis--Nonmandatory.

Air Matrix:

WISHA Permissible Exposure Limits:

Time Weighted Average           0.1 fiber/cc

Excursion Level (30 minutes)    1.0 fiber/cc

Collection Procedure:

A known volume of air is drawn through a 25-mm diameter cassette containing a mixed-cellulose ester filter. The cassette must be equipped with an electrically conductive 50-mm extension cowl. The sampling time and rate are chosen to give a fiber density of between 100 to 1,300 fibers/mm2 on the filter.

Recommended Sampling Rate           0.5 to 4.0 liters/minute (L/min)

Recommended Air Volumes:

Minimum 25 L

Maximum 2,400 L

Analytical Procedure: A portion of the sample filter is cleared and prepared for asbestos fiber counting by Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM) at 400X. Commercial manufacturers and products mentioned in this method are for descriptive use only and do not constitute endorsements by WISHA. Similar products from other sources can be substituted.

Introduction.

This method describes the collection of airborne asbestos fibers using calibrated sampling pumps with mixed-cellulose ester (MCE) filters and analysis by phase contrast microscopy (PCM). Some terms used are unique to this method and are defined below:

Asbestos: A term for naturally occurring fibrous minerals. Asbestos includes chrysotile, crocidolite, amosite (cummingtonite-grunerite asbestos), tremolite asbestos, actinolite asbestos, anthophyllite asbestos, and any of these minerals that have been chemically treated and/or altered. The precise chemical formulation of each species will vary with the location from which it was mined. Nominal compositions are listed:

Chrysotile                   Mg3Si2O5(OH)4

Crocidolite                  Na2Fe32+Fe23+Si8O22(OH)2

Amosite                     (Mg,Fe)7Si8O22(OH)2

Tremolite-actinolite     Ca2(Mg,Fe)5Si8O22(OH)2

Anthophyllite              (Mg,Fe)7Si8O22(OH)2

Asbestos Fiber: A fiber of asbestos which meets the criteria specified below for a fiber.

Aspect Ratio: The ratio of the length of a fiber to it's diameter (e.g. 3:1, 5:1 aspect ratios).

Cleavage Fragments: Mineral particles formed by comminution of minerals, especially those characterized by parallel sides and a moderate aspect ratio (usually less than 20:1).

Detection Limit: The number of fibers necessary to be 95% certain that the result is greater than zero.

Differential Counting: The term applied to the practice of excluding certain kinds of fibers from the fiber count because they do not appear to be asbestos.

Fiber: A particle that is 5 m or longer, with a length-to-width ratio of 3 to 1 or longer.

Field: The area within the graticule circle that is superimposed on the microscope image.

Set: The samples which are taken, submitted to the laboratory, analyzed, and for which, interim or final result reports are generated.

Tremolite, Anthophyllite, and Actinolite: The non-asbestos form of these minerals which meet the definition of a fiber. It includes any of these minerals that have been chemically treated and/or altered.

Walton-Beckett Graticule: An eyepiece graticule specifically designed for asbestos fiber counting. It consists of a circle with a projected diameter of 100 2 m (area of about 0.00785 mm2) with a crosshair having tic-marks at 3-m intervals in one direction and 5-m in the orthogonal direction. There are marks around the periphery of the circle to demonstrate the proper sizes and shapes of fibers. The disk is placed in one of the microscope eyepieces so that the design is superimposed on the field of view.

1. History.

(a) Early surveys to determine asbestos exposures were conducted using impinger counts of total dust with the counts expressed as million particles per cubic foot. The British Asbestos Research Council recommended filter membrane counting in 1969. In July 1969, the Bureau of Occupational Safety and Health published a filter membrane method for counting asbestos fibers in the United States. This method was refined by NIOSH and published as P & CAM 239. On May 29, 1971, OSHA specified filter membrane sampling with phase contrast counting for evaluation of asbestos exposures at work sites in the United States. The use of this technique was again required by OSHA in 1986. Phase contrast microscopy has continued to be the method of choice for the measurement of occupational exposure to asbestos.

(b) Principle. Air is drawn through a MCE filter to capture airborne asbestos fibers. A wedge shaped portion of the filter is removed, placed on a glass microscope slide and made transparent. A measured area (field) is viewed by PCM. All the fibers meeting a defined criteria for asbestos are counted and considered a measure of the airborne asbestos concentration.

(c) Advantages and Disadvantages

(i) There are four main advantages of PCM over other methods:

(A) The technique is specific for fibers. Phase contrast is a fiber counting technique which excludes non-fibrous particles from the analysis.

(B) The technique is inexpensive and does not require specialized knowledge to carry out the analysis for total fiber counts.

(C) The analysis is quick and can be performed on-site for rapid determination of air concentrations of asbestos fibers.

(D) The technique has continuity with historical epidemiological studies so that estimates of expected disease can be inferred from long-term determinations of asbestos exposures.

(ii) The main disadvantage of PCM is that it does not positively identify asbestos fibers. Other fibers which are not asbestos may be included in the count unless differential counting is performed. This requires a great deal of experience to adequately differentiate asbestos from non-asbestos fibers. Positive identification of asbestos must be performed by polarized light or electron microscopy techniques. A further disadvantage of PCM is that the smallest visible fibers are about 0.2 m in diameter while the finest asbestos fibers may be as small as 0.02 m in diameter. For some exposures, substantially more fibers may be present than are actually counted.

(d) Workplace Exposure. Asbestos is used by the construction industry in such products as shingles, floor tiles, asbestos cement, roofing felts, insulation and acoustical products. Non-construction uses include brakes, clutch facings, paper, paints, plastics, and fabrics. One of the most significant exposures in the workplace is the removal and encapsulation of asbestos in schools, public buildings, and homes. Many workers have the potential to be exposed to asbestos during these operations. About 95% of the asbestos in commercial use in the United States is chrysotile. Crocidolite and amosite make up most of the remainder. Anthophyllite and tremolite or actinolite are likely to be encountered as contaminants in various industrial products.

(e) Physical Properties. Asbestos fiber possesses a high tensile strength along its axis, is chemically inert, non-combustible, and heat resistant. It has a high electrical resistance and good sound absorbing properties. It can be weaved into cables, fabrics or other textiles, and also matted into asbestos papers, felts, or mats.

2. Range and Detection Limit.

(a) The ideal counting range on the filter is 100 to 1,300 fibers/mm2. With a Walton-Beckett graticule this range is equivalent to 0.8 to 10 fibers/field. Using NIOSH counting statistics, a count of 0.8 fibers/field would give an approximate coefficient of variation (CV) of 0.13.

(b) The detection limit for this method is 4.0 fibers per 100 fields or 5.5 fibers/mm2. This was determined using an equation to estimate the maximum CV possible at a specific concentration (95% confidence) and a Lower Control Limit of zero. The CV value was then used to determine a corresponding concentration from historical CV vs fiber relationships. As an example:

Lower Control Limit (95% Confidence) = AC-1.645(CV)(AC)

Where:

AC = Estimate of the airborne fiber concentration (fibers/cc)

Setting the Lower Control Limit = 0 and solving for CV:

0 = AC-1.645(CV)(AC)

CV = 0.61

This value was compared with CV vs. count curves. The count at which CV = 0.61 for Leidel-Busch counting statistics 8(i) or for an OSHA Salt Lake Technical Center (OSHA-SLTC) CV curve (see Appendix A for further information) was 4.4 fibers or 3.9 fibers per 100 fields, respectively. Although a lower detection limit of 4 fibers per 100 fields is supported by the OSHA-SLTC data, both data sets support the 4.5 fibers per 100 fields value.

3. Method Performance--Precision and Accuracy. Precision is dependent upon the total number of fibers counted and the uniformity of the fiber distribution on the filter. A general rule is to count at least 20 and not more than 100 fields. The count is discontinued when 100 fibers are counted, provided that 20 fields have already been counted. Counting more than 100 fibers results in only a small gain in precision. As the total count drops below 10 fibers, an accelerated loss of precision is noted. At this time, there is no known method to determine the absolute accuracy of the asbestos analysis. Results of samples prepared through the Proficiency Analytical Testing (PAT) Program and analyzed by the OSHA-SLTC showed no significant bias when compared to PAT reference values. The PAT samples were analyzed from 1987 to 1989 (N = 36) and the concentration range was from 120 to 1,300 fibers/mm2.

4. Interferences. Fibrous substances, if present, may interfere with asbestos analysis. Some common fibers are:

Fiber glass                               Perlite veins.

Anhydrite plant fibers gypsum      Some synthetic fibers.

Membrane structures                 Sponge spicules and diatoms.

Microorganisms                         Wollastonite.

The use of electron microscopy or optical tests such as polarized light, and dispersion staining may be used to differentiate these materials from asbestos when necessary.

5. Sampling.

(a) Equipment.

(i) Sample assembly. Conductive filter holder consisting of a 25-mm diameter, 3-piece cassette having a 50-mm long electrically conductive extension cowl. Backup pad, 25-mm, cellulose. Membrane filter, mixed-cellulose ester (MCE), 25-mm, plain, white, 0.8- to 1.2-m pore size.

Notes:

(A) DO NOT RE-USE CASSETTES.

(B) Fully conductive cassettes are required to reduce fiber loss to the sides of the cassette due to electrostatic attraction.

(C) Purchase filters which have been selected by the manufacturer for asbestos counting or analyze representative filters for fiber background before use. Discard the filter lot if more than 5 fibers/100 fields are found.

(D) To decrease the possibility of contamination, the sampling system (filter-backup pad-cassette) for asbestos is usually preassembled by the manufacturer.

(ii) Gel bands for sealing cassettes.

(iii) Sampling pump. Each pump must be a battery operated, self-contained unit small enough to be placed on the monitored employee and not interfere with the work being performed. The pump must be capable of sampling at 2.5 liters per minute (L/min) for the required sampling time.

(iv) Flexible tubing, 6-mm bore.

(v) Pump calibration. Stopwatch and bubble tube/burette or electronic meter.

(b) Sampling Procedure.

(i) Seal the point where the base and cowl of each cassette meet with a gel band or tape.

(ii) Charge the pumps completely before beginning.

(iii) Connect each pump to a calibration cassette with an appropriate length of 6-mm bore plastic tubing. Do not use luer connectors--the type of cassette specified above has built-in adapters.

(iv) Select an appropriate flow rate for the situation being monitored. The sampling flow rate must be between 0.5 and 4.0 L/min for personal sampling and is commonly set between 1 and 2 L/min. Always choose a flow rate that will not produce overloaded filters.

(v) Calibrate each sampling pump before and after sampling with a calibration cassette in-line (Note: This calibration cassette should be from the same lot of cassettes used for sampling). Use a primary standard (e.g. bubble burette) to calibrate each pump. If possible, calibrate at the sampling site.

Note: If sampling site calibration is not possible, environmental influences may affect the flow rate. The extent is dependent on the type of pump used. Consult with the pump manufacturer to determine dependence on environmental influences. If the pump is affected by temperature and pressure changes, use the formula in subsection (10) of this section to calculate the actual flow rate.

(vi) Connect each pump to the base of each sampling cassette with flexible tubing. Remove the end cap of each cassette and take each air sample open face. Assure that each sample cassette is held open side down in the employee's breathing zone during sampling. The distance from the nose/mouth of the employee to the cassette should be about 10 cm. Secure the cassette on the collar or lapel of the employee using spring clips or other similar devices.

(vii) A suggested minimum air volume when sampling to determine TWA compliance is 25 L. For Excursion Limit (30 min sampling time) evaluations, a minimum air volume of 48 L is recommended.

(viii) The most significant problem when sampling for asbestos is overloading the filter with non-asbestos dust. Suggested maximum air sample volumes for specific environments are:

Environment

Air Vol. (L)

Asbestos removal operations (visible dust)

100

Asbestos removal operations (little dust)

240

Office environments

400 to 2,400

Caution: Do not overload the filter with dust. High levels of non-fibrous dust particles may obscure fibers on the filter and lower the count or make counting impossible. If more than about 25 to 30% of the field area is obscured with dust, the result may be biased low. Smaller air volumes may be necessary when there is excessive non-asbestos dust in the air. While sampling, observe the filter with a small flashlight. If there is a visible layer of dust on the filter, stop sampling, remove and seal the cassette, and replace with a new sampling assembly. The total dust loading should not exceed 1 mg.

(ix) Blank samples are used to determine if any contamination has occurred during sample handling. Prepare two blanks for the first 1 to 20 samples. For sets containing greater than 20 samples, prepare blanks as 10% of the samples. Handle blank samples in the same manner as air samples with one exception: Do not draw any air through the blank samples. Open the blank cassette in the place where the sample cassettes are mounted on the employee. Hold it open for about 30 seconds. Close and seal the cassette appropriately. Store blanks for shipment with the sample cassettes.

(x) Immediately after sampling, close and seal each cassette with the base and plastic plugs. Do not touch or puncture the filter membrane as this will invalidate the analysis.

(xi) Attach a seal (OSHA-21 or equivalent) around each cassette in such a way as to secure the end cap plug and base plug. Tape the ends of the seal together since the seal is not long enough to be wrapped end-to-end. Also wrap tape around the cassette at each joint to keep the seal secure.

(c) Sample Shipment.

(i) Send the samples to the laboratory with paperwork requesting asbestos analysis. List any known fibrous interferences present during sampling on the paperwork. Also, note the workplace operation(s) sampled.

(ii) Secure and handle the samples in such that they will not rattle during shipment nor be exposed to static electricity. Do not ship samples in expanded polystyrene peanuts, vermiculite, paper shreds, or excelsior. Tape sample cassettes to sheet bubbles and place in a container that will cushion the samples without rattling.

(iii) To avoid the possibility of sample contamination, always ship bulk samples in separate mailing containers.

6. Analysis.

(a) Safety Precautions.

(i) Acetone is extremely flammable and precautions must be taken not to ignite it. Avoid using large containers or quantities of acetone. Transfer the solvent in a ventilated laboratory hood. Do not use acetone near any open flame. For generation of acetone vapor, use a spark free heat source.

(ii) Any asbestos spills should be cleaned up immediately to prevent dispersal of fibers. Prudence should be exercised to avoid contamination of laboratory facilities or exposure of personnel to asbestos. Asbestos spills should be cleaned up with wet methods and/or a High Efficiency Particulate-Air (HEPA) filtered vacuum.

Caution: Do not use a vacuum without a HEPA filter--It will disperse fine asbestos fibers in the air.

(b) Equipment.

(i) Phase contrast microscope with binocular or trinocular head.

(ii) Widefield or Huygenian 10X eyepieces (NOTE: The eyepiece containing the graticule must be a focusing eyepiece. Use a 40X phase objective with a numerical aperture of 0.65 to 0.75).

(iii) Kohler illumination (if possible) with green or blue filter.

(iv) Walton-Beckett Graticule, type G-22 with 100 2 m projected diameter.

(v) Mechanical stage. A rotating mechanical stage is convenient for use with polarized light.

(vi) Phase telescope.

(vii) Stage micrometer with 0.01-mm subdivisions.

(viii) Phase-shift test slide, mark II (Available from PTR optics Ltd., and also McCrone).

(ix) Precleaned glass slides, 25 mm X 75 mm. One end can be frosted for convenience in writing sample numbers, etc., or paste-on labels can be used.

(x) Cover glass #1-1/2.

(xi) Scalpel (#10, curved blade).

(xii) Fine tipped forceps.

(xiii) Aluminum block for clearing filter.

(xiv) Automatic adjustable pipette, 100- to 500-L.

(xv) Micropipette, 5 L.

(c) Reagents.

(i) Acetone (HPLC grade).

(ii) Triacetin (glycerol triacetate).

(iii) Lacquer or nail polish.

(d) Standard Preparation. A way to prepare standard asbestos samples of known concentration has not been developed. It is possible to prepare replicate samples of nearly equal concentration. This has been performed through the PAT program. These asbestos samples are distributed by the AIHA to participating laboratories. Since only about one-fourth of a 25-mm sample membrane is required for an asbestos count, any PAT sample can serve as a “standard” for replicate counting.

(e) Sample Mounting.

Note: See Safety Precautions in (6)(a) before proceeding. The objective is to produce samples with a smooth (non-grainy) background in a medium with a refractive index of approximately 1.46. The technique below collapses the filter for easier focusing and produces permanent mounts which are useful for quality control and interlaboratory comparison. An aluminum block or similar device is required for sample preparation.

(i) Heat the aluminum block to about 70C. The hot block should not be used on any surface that can be damaged by either the heat or from exposure to acetone.

(ii) Ensure that the glass slides and cover glasses are free of dust and fibers.

(iii) Remove the top plug to prevent a vacuum when the cassette is opened. Clean the outside of the cassette if necessary. Cut the seal and/or tape on the cassette with a razor blade. Very carefully separate the base from the extension cowl, leaving the filter and backup pad in the base.

(iv) With a rocking motion cut a triangular wedge from the filter using the scalpel. This wedge should be one-sixth to one-fourth of the filter. Grasp the filter wedge with the forceps on the perimeter of the filter which was clamped between the cassette pieces. DO NOT TOUCH the filter with your finger. Place the filter on the glass slide sample side up. Static electricity will usually keep the filter on the slide until it is cleared.

(v) Place the tip of the micropipette containing about 200 L acetone into the aluminum block. Insert the glass slide into the receiving slot in the aluminum block. Inject the acetone into the block with slow, steady pressure on the plunger while holding the pipette firmly in place. Wait 3 to 5 seconds for the filter to clear, then remove the pipette and slide from the aluminum block.

(vi) Immediately (less than 30 seconds) place 2.5 to 3.5 L of triacetin on the filter (Note: Waiting longer than 30 seconds will result in increased index of refraction and decreased contrast between the fibers and the preparation. This may also lead to separation of the cover slip from the slide).

(vii) Lower a cover slip gently onto the filter at a slight angle to reduce the possibility of forming air bubbles. If more than 30 seconds have elapsed between acetone exposure and triacetin application, glue the edges of the cover slip to the slide with lacquer or nail polish.

(viii) If clearing is slow, warm the slide for 15 min on a hot plate having a surface temperature of about 50C to hasten clearing. The top of the hot block can be used if the slide is not heated too long.

(ix) Counting may proceed immediately after clearing and mounting are completed.

(f) Sample Analysis. Completely align the microscope according to the manufacturer's instructions. Then, align the microscope using the following general alignment routine at the beginning of every counting session and more often if necessary.

(i) Alignment.

(A) Clean all optical surfaces. Even a small amount of dirt can significantly degrade the image.

(B) Rough focus the objective on a sample.

(C) Close down the field iris so that it is visible in the field of view. Focus the image of the iris with the condenser focus. Center the image of the iris in the field of view.

(D) Install the phase telescope and focus on the phase rings. Critically center the rings. Misalignment of the rings results in astigmatism which will degrade the image.

(E) Place the phase-shift test slide on the microscope stage and focus on the lines. The analyst must see line set 3 and should see at least parts of 4 and 5 but, not see line set 6 or 6. A microscope/microscopist combination which does not pass this test may not be used.

(ii) Counting Fibers.

(A) Place the prepared sample slide on the mechanical stage of the microscope. Position the center of the wedge under the objective lens and focus upon the sample.

(B) Start counting from one end of the wedge and progress along a radial line to the other end (count in either direction from perimeter to wedge tip). Select fields randomly, without looking into the eyepieces, by slightly advancing the slide in one direction with the mechanical stage control.

(C) Continually scan over a range of focal planes (generally the upper 10 to 15 m of the filter surface) with the fine focus control during each field count. Spend at least 5 to 15 seconds per field.

(D) Most samples will contain asbestos fibers with fiber diameters less than 1. Look carefully for faint fiber images. The small diameter fibers will be very hard to see. However, they are an important contribution to the total count.

(E) Count only fibers equal to or longer than 5. Measure the length of curved fibers along the curve.

(F) Count fibers which have a length to width ratio of 3:1 or greater.

(G) Count all the fibers in at least 20 fields. Continue counting until either 100 fibers are counted or 100 fields have been viewed; whichever occurs first. Count all the fibers in the final field.

(H) Fibers lying entirely within the boundary of the Walton-Beckett graticule field receive a count of 1. Fibers crossing the boundary once, having one end within the circle receive a count of 1/2. Do not count any fiber that crosses the graticule boundary more than once. Reject and do not count any other fibers even though they may be visible outside the graticule area. If a fiber touches the circle, it is considered to cross the line.

(I) Count bundles of fibers as one fiber unless individual fibers can be clearly identified and each individual fiber is clearly not connected to another counted fiber.

(J) Record the number of fibers in each field in a consistent way such that filter non-uniformity can be assessed.

(K) Regularly check phase ring alignment.

(L) When an agglomerate (mass of material) covers more than 25% of the field of view, reject the field and select another. Do not include it in the number of fields counted.

(M) Perform a “blind recount” of 1 in every 10 filter wedges (slides). Re-label the slides using a person other than the original counter.

(g) Fiber Identification. As previously mentioned in (1)(c), PCM does not provide positive confirmation of asbestos fibers. Alternate differential counting techniques should be used if discrimination is desirable. Differential counting may include primary discrimination based on morphology, polarized light analysis of fibers, or modification of PCM data by Scanning Electron or Transmission Electron Microscopy. A great deal of experience is required to routinely and correctly perform differential counting. It is discouraged unless it is legally necessary. Then, only if a fiber is obviously not asbestos should it be excluded from the count. Further discussion of this technique can be found in reference 8(j). If there is a question whether a fiber is asbestos or not, follow the rule: “WHEN IN DOUBT, COUNT.”

(h) Analytical Recommendations--Quality Control System.

(i) All individuals performing asbestos analysis must have taken the NIOSH course for sampling and evaluating airborne asbestos or an equivalent course.

(ii) Each laboratory engaged in asbestos counting must set up a slide trading arrangement with at least two other laboratories in order to compare performance and eliminate inbreeding of error. The slide exchange occurs at least semiannually. The round robin results must be posted where all analysts can view individual analyst's results.

(iii) Each laboratory engaged in asbestos counting must participate in the Proficiency Analytical Testing Program, the Asbestos Analyst Registry or equivalent.

(iv) Each analyst must select and count prepared slides from a “slide bank”. These are quality assurance counts. The slide bank must be prepared using uniformly distributed samples taken from the workload. Fiber densities should cover the entire range routinely analyzed by the laboratory. These slides are counted blind by all counters to establish an original standard deviation. This historical distribution is compared with the quality assurance counts. A counter must have 95% of all quality control samples counted within three standard deviations of the historical mean. This count is then integrated into a new historical mean and standard deviation for the slide. The analyses done by the counters to establish the slide bank may be used for an interim quality control program if the data are treated in a proper statistical fashion.

7. Calculations.

(a) Calculate the estimated airborne asbestos fiber concentration on the filter sample using the following formula:

Where:

AC = Airborne fiber concentration

FB = Total number of fibers greater than 5 m counted

FL = Total number of fields counted on the filter

BFB = Total number of fibers greater than 5m counted in the blank

BFL = Total number of fields counted on the blank

ECA = Effective collecting area of filter (385 mm2 nominal for a 25-mm filter.)

FR = Pump flow rate (L/min)

MFA = Microscope count field area (mm2). This is 0.00785 mm2 for a Walton-

Beckett Graticule.

T = Sample collection time (min)

1,000 = Conversion of L to cc

Note: The collection area of a filter is seldom equal to 385 mm2. It is appropriate for laboratories to routinely monitor the exact diameter using an inside micrometer. The collection area is calculated according to the formula:

Area = " (d/2)2

(b) Short-cut Calculation

Since a given analyst always has the same interpupillary distance, the number of fields per filter for a particular analyst will remain constant for a given size filter. The field size for that analyst is constant (i.e. the analyst is using an assigned microscope and is not changing the reticle). For example, if the exposed area of the filter is always 385 mm2 and the size of the field is always 0.00785 mm2, the number of fields per filter will always be 49,000. In addition it is necessary to convert liters of air to cc. These three constants can then be combined such that ECA/(1,000 X MFA) = 49. The previous equation simplifies to:

(c) Recount Calculations. As mentioned in step 13 of 6 (f)(ii), a “blind recount” of 10% of the slides is performed. In all cases, differences will be observed between the first and second counts of the same filter wedge. Most of these differences will be due to chance alone, that is, due to the random variability (precision) of the count method. Statistical recount criteria enables one to decide whether observed differences can be explained due to chance alone or are probably due to systematic differences between analysts, microscopes, or other biasing factors. The following recount criterion is for a pair of counts that estimate AC in fibers/cc. The criterion is given at the type-I error level. That is, there is 5% maximum risk that we will reject a pair of counts for the reason that one might be biased, when the large observed difference is really due to chance. Reject a pair of counts if:

Where:

AC1 = lower estimated airborne fiber concentration

AC2 = higher estimated airborne fiber concentration

ACavg = average of the two concentration estimates

CVFB = CV for the average of the two concentration estimates

If a pair of counts are rejected by this criterion then, recount the rest of the filters in the submitted set. Apply the test and reject any other pairs failing the test. Rejection shall include a memo to the industrial hygienist stating that the sample failed a statistical test for homogeneity and the true air concentration may be significantly different than the reported value.

(d) Reporting Results. Report results to the industrial hygienist as fibers/cc. Use two significant figures. If multiple analyses are performed on a sample, an average of the results is to be reported unless any of the results can be rejected for cause.

8. References.

(a) Dreesen, W.C., et al, U.S. Public Health Service: A Study of Asbestosis in the Asbestos Textile Industry, (Public Health Bulletin No. 241), US Treasury Dept., Washington, DC, 1938.

(b) Asbestos Research Council: The Measurement of Airborne Asbestos Dust by the Membrane Filter Method (Technical Note), Asbestos Research Council, Rockdale, Lancashire, Great Britain, 1969.

(c) Bayer, S.G., Zumwalde, R.D., Brown, T.A., Equipment and Procedure for Mounting Millipore Filters and Counting Asbestos Fibers by Phase Contrast Microscopy, Bureau of Occupational Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare, Cincinnati,OH,1969.

(d) NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 2nd ed., Vol. 1 (DHEW/NIOSH Pub. No. 77-157-A). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH, 1977.pp.239-1-239-21.

(e) Asbestos, Code of Federal Regulations 29 CFR 1910.1001. 1971.

(f) Occupational Exposure to Asbestos, Tremolite, Anthophyllite, and Actinolite. Final Rule, Federal Register 51: 119 (20 June 1986). pp.22612-22790.

(g) Asbestos, Tremolite, Anthophyllite, and Actinolite, Code of Federal Regulations 1910.1001. 1988. pp 711-752.

(h) Criteria for a Recommended Standard--Occupational Exposure to Asbestos (DHEW/NIOSH Pub. No. HSM 72-10267), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH, 1972. pp. III-1-III-24.

(i) Leidel, N.A., Bayer, S.G., Zumwalde, R.D., Busch, K.A., USPHS/NIOSH Membrane Filter Method for Evaluating Airborne Asbestos Fibers (DHEW/NIOSH Pub. No. 79-127). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH, 1979.

(j) Dixon, W.C., Applications of Optical Microscopy in Analysis of Asbestos and Quartz, Analytical Techniques in Occupational Health Chemistry, edited by D.D. Dollberg and A.W. Verstuyft. Wash. D.C.: American Chemical Society, (ACS Symposium Series 120) 1980. pp. 13-41.

9. Quality Control. The OSHA asbestos regulations require each laboratory to establish a quality control program. The following is presented as an example of how the OSHA-SLTC constructed its internal CV curve as part of meeting this requirement. Data for the CV curve shown below is from 395 samples collected during OSHA compliance inspections and analyzed from October 1980 through April 1986. Each sample was counted by 2 to 5 different counters independently of one another. The standard deviation and the CV statistic was calculated for each sample. This data was then plotted on a graph of CV vs. fibers/mm2. A least squares regression was performed using the following equation:

CV = antilog10[A(log10(x))2+B(log10(x))+C]

Where:

x =   the number of fibers/mm2

Application of least squares gave:

A =    0.182205

B =    -0.973343

C =    0.327499

Using these values, the equation becomes:

CV = antilog10[0.182205(log10 (x))2 - 0.973343(log 10(x)) + 0.327499].

10. Sampling Pump Flow Rate Corrections. This correction is used if a difference greater than 5% in ambient temperature and/or pressure is noted between calibration and sampling sites and the pump does not compensate for the differences.

Where:

Qact = actual flow rate

Qcal = calibrated flow rate (if a rotameter was used, the rotameter value)

Pcal = uncorrected air pressure at calibration

Pact = uncorrected air pressure at sampling site

Tact = temperature at sampling site (K)

Tcal = temperature at calibration (K)

11. Walton-Beckett Graticule

When ordering the Graticule for asbestos counting, specify the exact disc diameter needed to fit the ocular of the microscope and the diameter (mm) of the circular counting area. Instructions for measuring the dimensions necessary are listed:

(a) Insert any available graticule into the focusing eyepiece and focus so that the graticule lines are sharp and clear.

(b) Align the microscope.

(c) Place a stage micrometer on the microscope object stage and focus the microscope on the graduated lines.

(d) Measure the magnified grid length, PL (m), using the stage micrometer.

(e) Remove the graticule from the microscope and measure its actual grid length, AL (mm). This can be accomplished by using a mechanical stage fitted with verniers, or a jeweler's loupe with a direct reading scale.

(f) Let D = 100 m. Calculate the circle diameter, dc (mm), for the Walton-Beckett graticule and specify the diameter when making a purchase:

Example: If PL = 108 m, AL = 2.93 mm and D = 100 m, then,

dc = (2.93 x 100)/108 = 2.71 mm

(g) Each eyepiece-objective-reticle combination on the microscope must be calibrated. Should any of the three be changed (by zoom adjustment, disassembly, replacement, etc.), the combination must be recalibrated. Calibration may change if interpupillary distance is changed. Measure the field diameter, D (acceptable range: 100 2 m) with a stage micrometer upon receipt of the graticule from the manufacturer. Determine the field area (mm2).

Field Area = p(D/2)2

If D = 100 m = 0.1 mm, then

Field Area = +(0.1 mm/2)2 = 0.00785 mm2

The Graticule is available from: Graticules Ltd., Morley Road, Tonbridge TN9 IRN, Kent, England (Telephone 011-44-732-359061). Also available from PTR Optics Ltd., 145 Newton Street, Waltham, MA 02154 [telephone (617) 891-6000] or McCrone Accessories and Components, 2506 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60616 [phone (312) 842-7100]. The graticule is custom made for each microscope.

BILLING CODE 4510-26-P

Figure 1: Walton-Beckett Graticule with some explanatory fibers.

Counts for the Fibers in the Figure

Structure No. Count Explanation
1 to 6 1 Single fibers all contained within the circle.
7 1/2 Fiber crosses circle once.
8 0 Fiber too short.
9 2 Two crossing fibers.
10 0 Fiber outside graticule.
11 0 Fiber crosses grataicule twice.
12 1/2 Although split, fiber only crosses once.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, .050, RCW 49.26.040 and RCW 49.26.130. 99-17-026 (Order 98-35), 296-62-07737, filed 08/10/99, effective 11/10/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. 97-01-079, 296-62-07737, filed 12/17/96, effective 3/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), 296-62-07737, filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), 296-62-07737, filed 4/27/87.]

296-62 Part I-1 (Continued)

End of main content, page footer follows.

Access Washington official state portal

© Washington State Dept. of Labor & Industries. Use of this site is subject to the laws of the state of Washington.