General Occupational Health Standards

Table of Contents



Carcinogens (Specific)
Chapter 296-62 WAC, Part G (Continued)

WAC 296-62-07460 Butadiene.

Printable version of this section only.

(1) Scope and application.

(a) This section applies to all occupational exposures to 1,3-Butadiene (BD), Chemical Abstracts Service Registry No. 106-99-0, except as provided in (b) of this subsection.

(b)(i) Except for the recordkeeping provisions in subsection (13)(a) of this section, this section does not apply to the processing, use, or handling of products containing BD or to other work operations and streams in which BD is present where objective data are reasonably relied upon that demonstrate the work operation or the product or the group of products or operations to which it belongs may not reasonably be foreseen to release BD in airborne concentrations at or above the action level or in excess of the STEL under the expected conditions of processing, use, or handling that will cause the greatest possible release or in any plausible accident.

(ii) This section also does not apply to work operations, products or streams where the only exposure to BD is from liquid mixtures containing 0.1% or less of BD by volume or the vapors released from such liquids, unless objective data become available that show that airborne concentrations generated by such mixtures can exceed the action level or STEL under reasonably predictable conditions of processing, use or handling that will cause the greatest possible release.

(iii) Except for labeling requirements and requirements for emergency response, this section does not apply to the storage, transportation, distribution or sale of BD or liquid mixtures in intact containers or in transportation pipelines sealed in such a manner as to fully contain BD vapors or liquids.

(c) Where products or processes containing BD are exempted under (b) of this subsection, the employer shall maintain records of the objective data supporting that exemption and the basis for the employer's reliance on the data, as provided in subsection (13)(a) of this section.

(2) Definitions: For the purpose of this section, the following definitions shall apply:

“Action level” means a concentration of airborne BD of 0.5 ppm calculated as an 8-hour time-weighted average.

“Director” means the director of the department of labor and industries, or authorized representatives.

“Authorized person” means any person specifically designated by the employer, whose duties require entrance into a regulated area, or a person entering such an area as a designated representative of employees to exercise the right to observe monitoring and measuring procedures under subsection (4)(h) of this section, or a person designated under the WISH Act or regulations issued under the WISH Act to enter a regulated area.

“1,3-Butadiene” means an organic compound with chemical formula CH2 = CHCH = CH2 that has a molecular weight of approximately 54.15 gm/mole.

“Business day” means any Monday through Friday, except those days designated as federal, state, local or company specific holidays.

“Complete blood count (CBC)” means laboratory tests performed on whole blood specimens and includes the following: White blood cell count (WBC), hematocrit (Hct), red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hgb), differential count of white blood cells, red blood cell morphology, red blood cell indices, and platelet count.

“Day” means any part of a calendar day.

“Emergency situation” means any occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment that may or does result in an uncontrolled significant release of BD.

“Employee exposure” means exposure of a worker to airborne concentrations of BD which would occur if the employee were not using respiratory protective equipment.

“Objective data” means monitoring data, or mathematical modelling or calculations based on composition, chemical and physical properties of a material, stream or product.

“Permissible exposure limits (PELs)” means either the 8-hour time-weighted average (8-hr TWA) exposure or the short-term exposure limit (STEL).

“Physician or other licensed health care professional” is an individual whose legally permitted scope of practice (i.e., license, registration, or certification) allows him or her to independently provide or be delegated the responsibility to provide one or more of the specific health care services required by (k) of this subsection.

“Regulated area” means any area where airborne concentrations of BD exceed or can reasonably be expected to exceed the 8-hour time-weighted average (8-hr TWA) exposure of 1 ppm or the short-term exposure limit (STEL) of 5 ppm for 15 minutes.

“This section” means this 1,3-butadiene standard.

(3) Permissible exposure limits (PELs).

(a) Time-weighted average (TWA) limit. The employer shall ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of BD in excess of one part BD per million parts of air (ppm) measured as an eight (8)-hour time-weighted average.

(b) Short-term exposure limit (STEL). The employer shall ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of BD in excess of five parts of BD per million parts of air (5 ppm) as determined over a sampling period of fifteen minutes.

(4) Exposure monitoring.

(a) General.

(i) Determinations of employee exposure shall be made from breathing zone air samples that are representative of the 8-hour TWA and 15-minute short-term exposures of each employee.

(ii) Representative 8-hour TWA employee exposure shall be determined on the basis of one or more samples representing full-shift exposure for each shift and for each job classification in each work area.

(iii) Representative 15-minute short-term employee exposures shall be determined on the basis of one or more samples representing 15-minute exposures associated with operations that are most likely to produce exposures above the STEL for each shift and for each job classification in each work area.

(iv) Except for the initial monitoring required under (b) of this subsection, where the employer can document that exposure levels are equivalent for similar operations on different work shifts, the employer need only determine representative employee exposure for that operation from the shift during which the highest exposure is expected.

(b) Initial monitoring.

(i) Each employer who has a workplace or work operation covered by this section, shall perform initial monitoring to determine accurately the airborne concentrations of BD to which employees may be exposed, or shall rely on objective data pursuant to subsection (1)(b)(i) of this section to fulfill this requirement. This initial monitoring required under this subitem shall be completed within 60 days of the introduction of BD into the workplace.

(ii) Where the employer has monitored within two years prior to the effective date of this section and the monitoring satisfies all other requirements of this section, the employer may rely on such earlier monitoring results to satisfy the requirements of (b)(i) of this subsection, provided that the conditions under which the initial monitoring was conducted have not changed in a manner that may result in new or additional exposures.

(c) Periodic monitoring and its frequency.

(i) If the initial monitoring required by (b) of this subsection reveals employee exposure to be at or above the action level but at or below both the 8-hour TWA limit and the STEL, the employer shall repeat the representative monitoring required by (a) of this subsection every twelve months.

(ii) If the initial monitoring required by (b) of this subsection reveals employee exposure to be above the 8-hour TWA limit, the employer shall repeat the representative monitoring required by (a)(ii) of this subsection at least every three months until the employer has collected two samples per quarter (each at least 7 days apart) within a two-year period, after which such monitoring must occur at least every six months.

(iii) If the initial monitoring required by (b) of this subsection reveals employee exposure to be above the STEL, the employer shall repeat the representative monitoring required by (a)(iii) of this subsection at least every three months until the employer has collected two samples per quarter (each at least 7 days apart) within a two-year period, after which such monitoring must occur at least every six months.

(iv) The employer may alter the monitoring schedule from every six months to annually for any required representative monitoring for which two consecutive measurements taken at least 7 days apart indicate that employee exposure has decreased to or below the 8-hour TWA, but is at or above the action level.

(d) Termination of monitoring.

(i) If the initial monitoring required by (b) of this subsection reveals employee exposure to be below the action level and at or below the STEL, the employer may discontinue the monitoring for employees whose exposures are represented by the initial monitoring.

(ii) If the periodic monitoring required by (c) of this subsection reveals that employee exposures, as indicated by at least two consecutive measurements taken at least 7 days apart, are below the action level and at or below the STEL, the employer may discontinue the monitoring for those employees who are represented by such monitoring.

(e) Additional monitoring.

(i) The employer shall institute the exposure monitoring required under subsection (4) of this section whenever there has been a change in the production, process, control equipment, personnel or work-practices that may result in new or additional exposures to BD or when the employer has any reason to suspect that a change may result in new or additional exposures.

(ii) Whenever spills, leaks, ruptures or other breakdowns occur that may lead to employee exposure above the 8-hr TWA limit or above the STEL, the employer shall monitor (using leak source, such as direct reading instruments, area or personal monitoring), after the cleanup of the spill or repair of the leak, rupture or other breakdown, to ensure that exposures have returned to the level that existed prior to the incident.

(f) Accuracy of monitoring.

Monitoring shall be accurate, at a confidence level of 95 percent, to within plus or minus 25 percent for airborne concentrations of BD at or above the 1 ppm TWA limit and to within plus or minus 35 percent for airborne concentrations of BD at or above the action level of 0.5 ppm and below the 1 ppm TWA limit.

(g) Employee notification of monitoring results.

(i) The employer shall, within 5 business days after the receipt of the results of any monitoring performed under this section, notify the affected employees of these results in writing either individually or by posting of results in an appropriate location that is accessible to affected employees.

(ii) The employer shall, within 15 business days after receipt of any monitoring performed under this section indicating the 8-hour TWA or STEL has been exceeded, provide the affected employees, in writing, with information on the corrective action being taken by the employer to reduce employee exposure to or below the 8-hour TWA or STEL and the schedule for completion of this action.

(h) Observation of monitoring.

(i) Employee observation. The employer shall provide affected employees or their designated representatives an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to BD conducted in accordance with this section.

(ii) Observation procedures. When observation of the monitoring of employee exposure to BD requires entry into an area where the use of protective clothing or equipment is required, the employer shall provide the observer at no cost with protective clothing and equipment, and shall ensure that the observer uses this equipment and complies with all other applicable safety and health procedures.

(5) Regulated areas.

(a) The employer shall establish a regulated area wherever occupational exposures to airborne concentrations of BD exceed or can reasonably be expected to exceed the permissible exposure limits, either the 8-hr TWA or the STEL.

(b) Access to regulated areas shall be limited to authorized persons.

(c) Regulated areas shall be demarcated from the rest of the workplace in any manner that minimizes the number of employees exposed to BD within the regulated area.

(d) An employer at a multi-employer worksite who establishes a regulated area shall communicate the access restrictions and locations of these areas to other employers with work operations at that worksite whose employees may have access to these areas.

(6) Methods of compliance.

(a) Engineering controls and work-practices.

(i) The employer shall institute engineering controls and work-practices to reduce and maintain employee exposure to or below the PELs, except to the extent that the employer can establish that these controls are not feasible or where subsection (8)(a)(i) of this section applies.

(ii) Wherever the feasible engineering controls and work-practices which can be instituted are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the 8-hour TWA or STEL, the employer shall use them to reduce employee exposure to the lowest levels achievable by these controls and shall supplement them by the use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of subsection (8) of this section.

(b) Compliance plan.

(i) Where any exposures are over the PELs, the employer shall establish and implement a written plan to reduce employee exposure to or below the PELs primarily by means of engineering and work-practice controls, as required by (a) of this subsection, and by the use of respiratory protection where required or permitted under this section. No compliance plan is required if all exposures are under the PELs.

(ii) The written compliance plan shall include a schedule for the development and implementation of the engineering controls and work-practice controls including periodic leak detection surveys.

(iii) Copies of the compliance plan required in (b) of this subsection shall be furnished upon request for examination and copying to the director, affected employees and designated employee representatives. Such plans shall be reviewed at least every 12 months, and shall be updated as necessary to reflect significant changes in the status of the employer's compliance program.

(iv) The employer shall not implement a schedule of employee rotation as a means of compliance with the PELs.

(7) Exposure goal program.

(a) For those operations and job classifications where employee exposures are greater than the action level, in addition to compliance with the PELs, the employer shall have an exposure goal program that is intended to limit employee exposures to below the action level during normal operations.

(b) Written plans for the exposure goal program shall be furnished upon request for examination and copying to the director, affected employees and designated employee representatives.

(c) Such plans shall be updated as necessary to reflect significant changes in the status of the exposure goal program.

(d) Respirator use is not required in the exposure goal program.

(e) The exposure goal program shall include the following items unless the employer can demonstrate that the item is not feasible, will have no significant effect in reducing employee exposures, or is not necessary to achieve exposures below the action level:

(i) A leak prevention, detection, and repair program.

(ii) A program for maintaining the effectiveness of local exhaust ventilation systems.

(iii) The use of pump exposure control technology such as, but not limited to, mechanical double-sealed or seal-less pumps.

(iv) Gauging devices designed to limit employee exposure, such as magnetic gauges on rail cars.

(v) Unloading devices designed to limit employee exposure, such as a vapor return system.

(vi) A program to maintain BD concentration below the action level in control rooms by use of engineering controls.

(8) Respiratory protection.

(a) General. For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:

(i) Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work-practice controls;

(ii) Nonroutine work operations that are performed infrequently and for which exposures are limited in duration;

(iii) Work operations for which feasible engineering controls and work-practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce employee exposures to or below the PELs;

(iv) Emergencies.

(b) Respirator program.

(i) The employer must implement a respiratory protection program as required by chapter 296-842 WAC, except WAC 296-842-13005 and 296-842-14005, which covers each employee required by this section to use a respirator.

(ii) If air-purifying respirators are used, the employer must replace the air-purifying filter elements according to the replacement schedule set for the class of respirators listed in Table 1 of this section, and at the beginning of each work shift.

(iii) Instead of using the replacement schedule listed in Table 1 of this section, the employer may replace cartridges or canisters at 90% of their expiration service life, provided the employer:

(A) Demonstrates that employees will be adequately protected by this procedure;

(B) Uses BD breakthrough data for this purpose that have been derived from tests conducted under worst-case conditions of humidity, temperature, and air-flow rate through the filter element, and the employer also describes the data supporting the cartridge-or canister-change schedule, as well as the basis for using the data in the employer's respirator program.

(iv) A label must be attached to each filter element to indicate the date and time it is first installed on the respirator.

(v) If NIOSH approves and end-of-service-life indicator (ESLI) for an air-purifying filter element, the element may be used until the ESLI shows no further useful service life or until the element is replaced at the beginning of the next work shift, whichever occurs first.

(vi) Regardless of the air-purifying element used, if an employee detects the odor of BD, the employer must replace the air-purifying element immediately.

(c) Respirator selection.

(i) The employer must select appropriate respirators from Table 1 of this section.

Table 1. - Minimum Requirements for Respiratory Protection for Airborne BD

Concentration of Airborne BD (ppm) or condition of use

Minimum required respirator

Less than or equal to 5 ppm(5 times PEL)

(a) Air-purifying half-mask or full facepiece respirator equipped with approved BD or organic vapor cartridges or canisters. Cartridges or canisters shall be replaced every 4 hours.

Less than or equal to 10 ppm (10 times PEL)

(a) Air-purifying half-mask or full facepiece respirator equipped with approved BD or organic vapor cartridges or canisters. Cartridges or canisters shall be replaced every 3 hours.

Less than or equal to 25 ppm(25 times PEL)

(a) Air-purifying full facepiece respirator equipped with approved BD or organic vapor cartridges or canisters. Cartridges or canisters shall be replaced every 2 hours.

 

(b) Any powered air-purifying respirator equipped with approved BD or organic vapor cartridges. PAPR cartridges shall be replaced every 2 hours.

 

(c) Continuous-flow supplied air respirator equipped with a hood or helmet.

Less than or equal to 50 ppm(50 times PEL)

(a) Air-purifying full facepiece respirator equipped with approved BD or organic vapor cartridges or canisters Cartridge s or canisters shall be replaced every 1 hour.

 

(b) Powered air purifying respirator equipped with a tight-fitting facepiece and an approved BD or organic vapor cartridges. PAPR cartridges shall be replaced every 1 hour.

Less than or equal to 1,000 ppm (1,000 times PEL)

(a) Supplied air respirator equipped with a half mask or full facepiece and operated in pressure-demand mode or other positive-pressure mode.

Greater than 1,000 ppm

(a) Self- contained breathing unknown concentration, or apparatus equipped with a fire fighting full facepiece and operated in a pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode.

 

(b) Any supplied air respirator equipped with a full facepiece and operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in a pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode.

Escape from IDLH Conditions

(a) Any positive-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus with an appropriate service life.

 

(b) Any air-purifying full facepiece respirator equipped with a front or back mounted BD or organic vapor canister.

Notes: Respirators approved for use in higher concentrations are permitted to be used in lower concentrations. Full facepiece is required when eye irritation is anticipated.

(ii) Air-purifying respirators must have filter elements certified by NIOSH for organic vapor or BD.

(iii) When an employee whose job requires the use of a respirator cannot use a negative-pressure respirator, the employer must provide the employee with a respirator that has less breathing resistance than the negative-pressure respirator, such as a powered air-purifying respirator or supplied-air respirator, when the employee is able to use it and if it provides the employee adequate protection.

(9) Protective clothing and equipment. Where appropriate to prevent eye contact and limit dermal exposure to BD, the employer shall provide protective clothing and equipment at no cost to the employee and shall ensure its use. Eye and face protection shall meet the requirements of WAC 296-800-160.

(10) Emergency situations. Written plan. A written plan for emergency situations shall be developed, or an existing plan shall be modified, to contain the applicable elements specified in WAC 296-24-567, Employee emergency plans and fire prevention plans, and in WAC 296-62-3112, hazardous waste operations and emergency responses, for each workplace where there is a possibility of an emergency.

(11) Medical screening and surveillance.

(a) Employees covered. The employer shall institute a medical screening and surveillance program as specified in this subsection for:

(i) Each employee with exposure to BD at concentrations at or above the action level on 30 or more days or for employees who have or may have exposure to BD at or above the PELs on 10 or more days a year;

(ii) Employers (including successor owners) shall continue to provide medical screening and surveillance for employees, even after transfer to a non-BD exposed job and regardless of when the employee is transferred, whose work histories suggest exposure to BD:

(A) At or above the PELs on 30 or more days a year for 10 or more years;

(B) At or above the action level on 60 or more days a year for 10 or more years; or

(C) Above 10 ppm on 30 or more days in any past year; and

(iii) Each employee exposed to BD following an emergency situation.

(b) Program administration.

(i) The employer shall ensure that the health questionnaire, physical examination and medical procedures are provided without cost to the employee, without loss of pay, and at a reasonable time and place.

(ii) Physical examinations, health questionnaires, and medical procedures shall be performed or administered by a physician or other licensed health care professional.

(iii) Laboratory tests shall be conducted by an accredited laboratory.

(c) Frequency of medical screening activities. The employer shall make medical screening available on the following schedule:

(i) For each employee covered under (a)(i) and (ii) of this subsection, a health questionnaire and complete blood count (CBC) with differential and platelet count every year, and a physical examination as specified below:

(A) An initial physical examination that meets the requirements of this rule, if twelve months or more have elapsed since the last physical examination conducted as part of a medical screening program for BD exposure;

(B) Before assumption of duties by the employee in a job with BD exposure;

(C) Every 3 years after the initial physical examination;

(D) At the discretion of the physician or other licensed health care professional reviewing the annual health questionnaire and CBC;

(E) At the time of employee reassignment to an area where exposure to BD is below the action level, if the employee's past exposure history does not meet the criteria of (a)(ii) of this subsection for continued coverage in the screening and surveillance program, and if twelve months or more have elapsed since the last physical examination; and

(F) At termination of employment if twelve months or more have elapsed since the last physical examination.

(ii) Following an emergency situation, medical screening shall be conducted as quickly as possible, but not later than 48 hours after the exposure.

(iii) For each employee who must wear a respirator, physical ability to perform the work and use the respirator must be determined as required by chapter 296-842 WAC.

(d) Content of medical screening.

(i) Medical screening for employees covered by (a)(i) and (ii) of this subsection shall include:

(A) A baseline health questionnaire that includes a comprehensive occupational and health history and is updated annually. Particular emphasis shall be placed on the hematopoietic and reticuloendothelial systems, including exposure to chemicals, in addition to BD, that may have an adverse effect on these systems, the presence of signs and symptoms that might be related to disorders of these systems, and any other information determined by the examining physician or other licensed health care professional to be necessary to evaluate whether the employee is at increased risk of material impairment of health from BD exposure. Health questionnaires shall consist of the sample forms in Appendix C to this section, or be equivalent to those samples;

(B) A complete physical examination, with special emphasis on the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and skin;

(C) A CBC; and

(D) Any other test which the examining physician or other licensed health care professional deems necessary to evaluate whether the employee may be at increased risk from exposure to BD.

(ii) Medical screening for employees exposed to BD in an emergency situation shall focus on the acute effects of BD exposure and at a minimum include: A CBC within 48 hours of the exposure and then monthly for three months; and a physical examination if the employee reports irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, lungs, or skin, blurred vision, coughing, drowsiness, nausea, or headache. Continued employee participation in the medical screening and surveillance program, beyond these minimum requirements, shall be at the discretion of the physician or other licensed health care professional.

(e) Additional medical evaluations and referrals.

(i) Where the results of medical screening indicate abnormalities of the hematopoietic or reticuloendothelial systems, for which a nonoccupational cause is not readily apparent, the examining physician or other licensed health care professional shall refer the employee to an appropriate specialist for further evaluation and shall make available to the specialist the results of the medical screening.

(ii) The specialist to whom the employee is referred under this subsection shall determine the appropriate content for the medical evaluation, e.g., examinations, diagnostic tests and procedures, etc.

(f) Information provided to the physician or other licensed health care professional. The employer shall provide the following information to the examining physician or other licensed health care professional involved in the evaluation:

(i) A copy of this section including its appendices;

(ii) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's BD exposure;

(iii) The employee's actual or representative BD exposure level during employment tenure, including exposure incurred in an emergency situation;

(iv) A description of pertinent personal protective equipment used or to be used; and

(v) Information, when available, from previous employment-related medical evaluations of the affected employee which is not otherwise available to the physician or other licensed health care professional or the specialist.

(g) The written medical opinion.

(i) For each medical evaluation required by this section, the employer shall ensure that the physician or other licensed health care professional produces a written opinion and provides a copy to the employer and the employee within 15 business days of the evaluation. The written opinion shall be limited to the following information:

(A) The occupationally pertinent results of the medical evaluation;

(B) A medical opinion concerning whether the employee has any detected medical conditions which would place the employee's health at increased risk of material impairment from exposure to BD;

(C) Any recommended limitations upon the employee's exposure to BD; and

(D) A statement that the employee has been informed of the results of the medical evaluation and any medical conditions resulting from BD exposure that require further explanation or treatment.

The written medical opinion provided to the employer shall not reveal specific records, findings, and diagnoses that have no bearing on the employee's ability to work with BD.

Note: This provision does not negate the ethical obligation of the physician or other licensed health care professional to transmit any other adverse findings directly to the employer.

(h) Medical surveillance.

(i) The employer shall ensure that information obtained from the medical screening program activities is aggregated (with all personal identifiers removed) and periodically reviewed, to ascertain whether the health of the employee population of that employer is adversely affected by exposure to BD.

(ii) Information learned from medical surveillance activities must be disseminated to covered employees, as defined in (a) of this subsection, in a manner that ensures the confidentiality of individual medical information.

(12) Communication of BD hazards to employees.

(a) Hazard communication. The employer shall communicate the hazards associated with BD exposure in accordance with the requirements of the chemical hazard communication standard, WAC 296-800-170.

(b) Employee information and training.

(i) The employer shall train each employee who is potentially exposed to BD at or above the action level or the STEL in accordance with the requirements of the chemical hazard communication standard, WAC 296-800-170.

(ii) The employer shall institute a training program for all employees who are potentially exposed to BD at or above the action level or the STEL, ensure employee participation in the program and maintain a record of the contents of such program.

(iii) Training shall be provided prior to or at the time of initial assignment to a job potentially involving exposure to BD at or above the action level or STEL and at least annually thereafter.

(iv) The training program shall be conducted in a manner that the employee is able to understand. The employer shall ensure that each employee exposed to BD over the action level or STEL is informed of the following:

(A) The health hazards associated with BD exposure, and the purpose and a description of the medical screening and surveillance program required by this section;

(B) The quantity, location, manner of use, release, and storage of BD and the specific operations that could result in exposure to BD, especially exposures above the PEL or STEL;

(C) The engineering controls and work-practices associated with the employee's job assignment, and emergency procedures and personal protective equipment;

(D) The measures employees can take to protect themselves from exposure to BD;

(E) The contents of this standard and its appendices; and

(F) The right of each employee exposed to BD at or above the action level or STEL to obtain:

(I) Medical examinations as required by subsection (10) of this section at no cost to the employee;

(II) The employee's medical records required to be maintained by subsection (13)(c) of this section; and

(III) All air monitoring results representing the employee's exposure to BD and required to be kept by subsection (13)(b) of this section.

(c) Access to information and training materials.

(i) The employer shall make a copy of this standard and its appendices readily available without cost to all affected employees and their designated representatives and shall provide a copy if requested.

(ii) The employer shall provide to the director, or the designated employee representatives, upon request, all materials relating to the employee information and the training program.

(13) Recordkeeping.

(a) Objective data for exemption from initial monitoring.

(i) Where the processing, use, or handling of products or streams made from or containing BD are exempted from other requirements of this section under subsection (1)(b) of this section, or where objective data have been relied on in lieu of initial monitoring under subsection (4)(b)(ii) of this section, the employer shall establish and maintain a record of the objective data reasonably relied upon in support of the exemption.

(ii) This record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The product or activity qualifying for exemption;

(B) The source of the objective data;

(C) The testing protocol, results of testing, and analysis of the material for the release of BD;

(D) A description of the operation exempted and how the data support the exemption; and

(E) Other data relevant to the operations, materials, processing, or employee exposures covered by the exemption.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for the duration of the employer's reliance upon such objective data.

(b) Exposure measurements.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of all measurements taken to monitor employee exposure to BD as prescribed in subsection (4) of this section.

(ii) The record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The date of measurement;

(B) The operation involving exposure to BD which is being monitored;

(C) Sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy;

(D) Number, duration, and results of samples taken;

(E) Type of protective devices worn, if any;

(F) Name, Social Security number and exposure of the employees whose exposures are represented; and

(G) The written corrective action and the schedule for completion of this action required by subsection (4)(g)(ii) of this section.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for at least 30 years in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.

(c) Medical screening and surveillance.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical screening and surveillance under this section.

(ii) The record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The name and Social Security number of the employee;

(B) Physician's or other licensed health care professional's written opinions as described in subsection (11)(e) of this section;

(C) A copy of the information provided to the physician or other licensed health care professional as required by subsections (11)(e) of this section.

(iii) Medical screening and surveillance records shall be maintained for each employee for the duration of employment plus 30 years, in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.

(d) Availability.

(i) The employer, upon written request, shall make all records required to be maintained by this section available for examination and copying to the director.

(ii) Access to records required to be maintained by (a) and (b) of this subsection shall be granted in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.

(e) Transfer of records.

(i) Whenever the employer ceases to do business, the employer shall transfer records required by this section to the successor employer. The successor employer shall receive and maintain these records. If there is no successor employer, the employer shall notify the director, at least three months prior to disposal, and transmit them to the director if requested by the director within that period.

(ii) The employer shall transfer medical and exposure records as set forth in chapter 296-802 WAC.

(14) Dates.

(a) Effective date. This section shall become effective (day,month), 1997.

(b) Start-up dates.

(i) The initial monitoring required under subsection (4)(b) of this section shall be completed immediately or within sixty days of the introduction of BD into the workplace.

(ii) The requirements of subsections (3) through (13) of this section, including feasible work-practice controls but not including engineering controls specified in subsection (6)(a) of this section, shall be complied with immediately.

(iii) Engineering controls specified by subsection (6)(a) of this section shall be implemented by February 4, 1999, and the exposure goal program specified in subsection (7) of this section shall be implemented by February 4, 2000.

(15) Appendices. Appendices A, B, C, D, and F to this section are informational and are not intended to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed or to detract from any existing obligations.

Appendix A. Substance Safety Data Sheet For 1,3-Butadiene (Non-Mandatory)

(1) Substance Identification.

(a) Substance: 1,3-Butadiene (CH2 = CHCH = CH2).

(b) Synonyms: 1,3-Butadiene (BD); butadiene; biethylene; bi-vinyl; divinyl; butadiene-1,3; buta-1,3-diene; erythrene; NCI-C50602; CAS-106-99-0.

(c) BD can be found as a gas or liquid.

(d) BD is used in production of styrene-butadiene rubber and polybutadiene rubber for the tire industry. Other uses include copolymer latexes for carpet backing and paper coating, as well as resins and polymers for pipes and automobile and appliance parts. It is also used as an intermediate in the production of such chemicals as fungicides.

(e) Appearance and odor: BD is a colorless, non-corrosive, flammable gas with a mild aromatic odor at standard ambient temperature and pressure.

(f) Permissible exposure: Exposure may not exceed 1 part BD per million parts of air averaged over the 8-hour workday, nor may short-term exposure exceed 5 parts of BD per million parts of air averaged over any 15-minute period in the 8-hour workday.

(2) Health Hazard Data.

(a) BD can affect the body if the gas is inhaled or if the liquid form, which is very cold (cryogenic), comes in contact with the eyes or skin.

(b) Effects of overexposure: Breathing very high levels of BD for a short time can cause central nervous system effects, blurred vision, nausea, fatigue, headache, decreased blood pressure and pulse rate, and unconsciousness. There are no recorded cases of accidental exposures at high levels that have caused death in humans, but this could occur. Breathing lower levels of BD may cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat. Skin contact with liquefied BD can cause irritation and frostbite.

(c) Long-term (chronic) exposure: BD has been found to be a potent carcinogen in rodents, inducing neoplastic lesions at multiple target sites in mice and rats. A recent study of BD-exposed workers showed that exposed workers have an increased risk of developing leukemia. The risk of leukemia increases with increased exposure to BD. OSHA has concluded that there is strong evidence that workplace exposure to BD poses an increased risk of death from cancers of the lymphohematopoietic system.

(d) Reporting signs and symptoms: You should inform your supervisor if you develop any of these signs or symptoms and suspect that they are caused by exposure to BD.

(3) Emergency First Aid Procedures.

In the event of an emergency, follow the emergency plan and procedures designated for your work area. If you have been trained in first aid procedures, provide the necessary first aid measures. If necessary, call for additional assistance from co-workers and emergency medical personnel.

(a) Eye and Skin Exposures: If there is a potential that liquefied BD can come in contact with eye or skin, face shields and skin protective equipment must be provided and used. If liquefied BD comes in contact with the eye, immediately flush the eyes with large amounts of water, occasionally lifting the lower and the upper lids. Flush repeatedly. Get medical attention immediately. Contact lenses should not be worn when working with this chemical. In the event of skin contact, which can cause frostbite, remove any contaminated clothing and flush the affected area repeatedly with large amounts of tepid water.

(b) Breathing: If a person breathes in large amounts of BD, move the exposed person to fresh air at once. If breathing has stopped, begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) if you have been trained in this procedure. Keep the affected person warm and at rest. Get medical attention immediately.

(c) Rescue: Move the affected person from the hazardous exposure. If the exposed person has been overcome, call for help and begin emergency rescue procedures. Use extreme caution so that you do not become a casualty. Understand the plant's emergency rescue procedures and know the locations of rescue equipment before the need arises.

(4) Respirators and Protective Clothing.

(a) Respirators: Good industrial hygiene practices recommend that engineering and work-practice controls be used to reduce environmental concentrations to the permissible exposure level. However, there are some exceptions where respirators may be used to control exposure. Respirators may be used when engineering and work-practice controls are not technically feasible, when such controls are in the process of being installed, or when these controls fail and need to be supplemented or during brief, non-routine, intermittent exposure. Respirators may also be used in situations involving non-routine work operations which are performed infrequently and in which exposures are limited in duration, and in emergency situations. In some instances cartridge respirator use is allowed, but only with strict time constraints. For example, at exposure below 5 ppm BD, a cartridge (or canister) respirator, either full or half face, may be used, but the cartridge must be replaced at least every 4 hours, and it must be replaced every 3 hours when the exposure is between 5 and 10 ppm.

If the use of respirators is necessary, the only respirators permitted are those that have been approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). In addition to respirator selection, a complete respiratory protection program must be instituted which includes regular training, maintenance, fit testing, inspection, cleaning, and evaluation of respirators. If you can smell BD while wearing a respirator, proceed immediately to fresh air, and change cartridge (or canister) before re-entering an area where there is BD exposure. If you experience difficulty in breathing while wearing a respirator, tell your supervisor.

(b) Protective Clothing: Employees should be provided with and required to use impervious clothing, gloves, face shields (eight-inch minimum), and other appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent the skin from becoming frozen by contact with liquefied BD (or a vessel containing liquid BD).

Employees should be provided with and required to use splash-proof safety goggles where liquefied BD may contact the eyes.

(5) Precautions for Safe Use, Handling, and Storage.

(a) Fire and Explosion Hazards: BD is a flammable gas and can easily form explosive mixtures in air. It has a lower explosive limit of 2%, and an upper explosive limit of 11.5%. It has an autoignition temperature of 420 deg. C (788 deg. F). Its vapor is heavier than air (vapor density, 1.9) and may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back. Usually it contains inhibitors to prevent self-polymerization (which is accompanied by evolution of heat) and to prevent formation of explosive peroxides. At elevated temperatures, such as in fire conditions, polymerization may take place. If the polymerization takes place in a container, there is a possibility of violent rupture of the container.

(b) Hazard: Slightly toxic. Slight respiratory irritant. Direct contact of liquefied BD on skin may cause freeze burns and frostbite.

(c) Storage: Protect against physical damage to BD containers. Outside or detached storage of BD containers is preferred. Inside storage should be in a cool, dry, well-ventilated, noncombustible location, away from all possible sources of ignition. Store cylinders vertically and do not stack. Do not store with oxidizing material.

(d) Usual Shipping Containers: Liquefied BD is contained in steel pressure apparatus.

(e) Electrical Equipment: Electrical installations in Class I hazardous locations, as defined in Article 500 of the National Electrical Code, should be in accordance with Article 501 of the Code. If explosion-proof electrical equipment is necessary, it shall be suitable for use in Group B. Group D equipment may be used if such equipment is isolated in accordance with Section 501-5(a) by sealing all conduit 1/2-inch size or larger. See Venting of Deflagrations (NFPA No. 68, 1994), National Electrical Code (NFPA No. 70, 1996), Static Electricity (NFPA No. 77, 1993), Lightning Protection Systems (NFPA No. 780, 1995), and Fire Hazard Properties of Flammable Liquids, Gases and Volatile Solids (NFPA No. 325, 1994).

(f) Fire Fighting: Stop flow of gas. Use water to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Fire extinguishers and quick drenching facilities must be readily available, and you should know where they are and how to operate them.

(g) Spill and Leak: Persons not wearing protective equipment and clothing should be restricted from areas of spills or leaks until clean-up has been completed. If BD is spilled or leaked, the following steps should be taken:

(i) Eliminate all ignition sources.

(ii) Ventilate area of spill or leak.

(iii) If in liquid form, for small quantities, allow to evaporate in a safe manner.

(iv) Stop or control the leak if this can be done without risk. If source of leak is a cylinder and the leak cannot be stopped in place, remove the leaking cylinder to a safe place and repair the leak or allow the cylinder to empty.

(h) Disposal: This substance, when discarded or disposed of, is a hazardous waste according to Federal regulations (40 CFR part 261). It is listed as hazardous waste number D001 due to its ignitability. The transportation, storage, treatment, and disposal of this waste material must be conducted in compliance with 40 CFR parts 262, 263, 264, 268 and 270. Disposal can occur only in properly permitted facilities. Check state and local regulation of any additional requirements as these may be more restrictive than federal laws and regulation.

(i) You should not keep food, beverages, or smoking materials in areas where there is BD exposure, nor should you eat or drink in such areas.

(j) Ask your supervisor where BD is used in your work area and ask for any additional plant safety and health rules.

(6) Medical Requirements.

Your employer is required to offer you the opportunity to participate in a medical screening and surveillance program if you are exposed to BD at concentrations exceeding the action level (0.5 ppm BD as an 8-hour TWA) on 30 days or more a year, or at or above the 8-hr TWA (1 ppm) or STEL (5 ppm for 15 minutes) on 10 days or more a year. Exposure for any part of a day counts. If you have had exposure to BD in the past, but have been transferred to another job, you may still be eligible to participate in the medical screening and surveillance program.

The WISHA rule specifies the past exposures that would qualify you for participation in the program. These past exposure are work histories that suggest the following:

(a) That you have been exposed at or above the PELs on 30 days a year for 10 or more years;

(b) That you have been exposed at or above the action level on 60 days a year for 10 or more years; or

(c) That you have been exposed above 10 ppm on 30 days in any past year.

Additionally, if you are exposed to BD in an emergency situation, you are eligible for a medical examination within 48 hours. The basic medical screening program includes a health questionnaire, physical examination, and blood test. These medical evaluations must be offered to you at a reasonable time and place, and without cost or loss of pay.

(7) Observation of Monitoring.

Your employer is required to perform measurements that are representative of your exposure to BD and you or your designated representative are entitled to observe the monitoring procedure. You are entitled to observe the steps taken in the measurement procedure, and to record the results obtained. When the monitoring procedure is taking place in an area where respirators or personal protective clothing and equipment are required to be worn, you or your representative must also be provided with, and must wear, the protective clothing and equipment.

(8) Access to Information.

(a) Each year, your employer is required to inform you of the information contained in this appendix. In addition, your employer must instruct you in the proper work-practices for using BD, emergency procedures, and the correct use of protective equipment.

(b) Your employer is required to determine whether you are being exposed to BD. You or your representative has the right to observe employee measurements and to record the results obtained. Your employer is required to inform you of your exposure. If your employer determines that you are being overexposed, he or she is required to inform you of the actions which are being taken to reduce your exposure to within permissible exposure limits and of the schedule to implement these actions.

(c) Your employer is required to keep records of your exposures and medical examinations. These records must be kept by the employer for at least thirty (30) years.

(d) Your employer is required to release your exposure and medical records to you or your representative upon your request.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 97-19-014 (Order 97-07), 296-62-7460, filed 10/05/97, effective 11/05/97.]

Appendix B. Substance Technical Guidelines for 1,3-Butadiene (Non-Mandatory)

(1) Physical and Chemical Data.

(a) Substance identification:

(i) Synonyms: 1,3-Butadiene (BD); butadiene; biethylene; bivinyl; divinyl; butadiene-1,3; buta-1,3-diene; erythrene; NCI-C50620; CAS-106-99-0.

(ii) Formula: (CH2:CHCH:CH2).

(iii) Molecular weight: 54.1.

(b) Physical data:

(i) Boiling point (760 mm Hg): -4.7 deg. C (23.5 deg. F).

(ii) Specific gravity (water = 1): 0.62 at 20 deg. C (68 deg. F).

(iii) Vapor density (air = 1 at boiling point of BD): 1.87.

(iv) Vapor pressure at 20 deg. C (68 deg. F): 910 mm Hg.

(v) Solubility in water, g/100 g water at 20 deg. C (68 deg. F): 0.05.

(vi) Appearance and odor: Colorless, flammable gas with a mildly aromatic odor. Liquefied BD is a colorless liquid with a mildly aromatic odor.

(2) Fire, Explosion, and Reactivity Hazard Data.

(a) Fire:

(i) Flash point: -76 deg. C (-105 deg. F) for take out; liquefied BD; Not applicable to BD gas.

(ii) Stability: A stabilizer is added to the monomer to inhibit formation of polymer during storage. Forms explosive peroxides in air in absence of inhibitor.

(iii) Flammable limits in air, percent by volume: Lower: 2.0; Upper: 11.5.

(iv) Extinguishing media: Carbon dioxide for small fires, polymer or alcohol foams for large fires.

(v) Special fire fighting procedures: Fight fire from protected location or maximum possible distance. Stop flow of gas before extinguishing fire. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed cylinders cool.

(vi) Unusual fire and explosion hazards: BD vapors are heavier than air and may travel to a source of ignition and flash back. Closed containers may rupture violently when heated.

(vii) For purposes of compliance with the requirements of WAC 296-24-330, BD is classified as a flammable gas. For example, 7,500 ppm, approximately one-fourth of the lower flammable limit, would be considered to pose a potential fire and explosion hazard.

(viii) For purposes of compliance with WAC 296-24-585, BD is classified as a Class B fire hazard.

(ix) For purposes of compliance with WAC 296-24-956 and 296-800-280, locations classified as hazardous due to the presence of BD shall be Class I.

(b) Reactivity:

(i) Conditions contributing to instability: Heat. Peroxides are formed when inhibitor concentration is not maintained at proper level. At elevated temperatures, such as in fire conditions, polymerization may take place.

(ii) Incompatibilities: Contact with strong oxidizing agents may cause fires and explosions. The contacting of crude BD (not BD monomer) with copper and copper alloys may cause formations of explosive copper compounds.

(iii) Hazardous decomposition products: Toxic gases (such as carbon monoxide) may be released in a fire involving BD.

(iv) Special precautions: BD will attack some forms of plastics, rubber, and coatings. BD in storage should be checked for proper inhibitor content, for self-polymerization, and for formation of peroxides when in contact with air and iron. Piping carrying BD may become plugged by formation of rubbery polymer.

(c) Warning Properties:

(i) Odor Threshold: An odor threshold of 0.45 ppm has been reported in The American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) Report, Odor Thresholds for Chemicals with Established Occupational Health Standards. (Ex. 32-28C).

(ii) Eye Irritation Level: Workers exposed to vapors of BD (concentration or purity unspecified) have complained of irritation of eyes, nasal passages, throat, and lungs. Dogs and rabbits exposed experimentally to as much as 6700 ppm for 7 1/2 hours a day for 8 months have developed no histologically demonstrable abnormality of the eyes.

(iii) Evaluation of Warning Properties: Since the mean odor threshold is about half of the 1 ppm PEL, and more than 10-fold below the 5 ppm STEL, most wearers of air purifying respirators should still be able to detect breakthrough before a significant overexposure to BD occurs.

(3) Spill, Leak, and Disposal Procedures.

(a) Persons not wearing protective equipment and clothing should be restricted from areas of spills or leaks until cleanup has been completed. If BD is spilled or leaked, the following steps should be taken:

(i) Eliminate all ignition sources.

(ii) Ventilate areas of spill or leak.

(iii) If in liquid form, for small quantities, allow to evaporate in a safe manner.

(iv) Stop or control the leak if this can be done without risk. If source of leak is a cylinder and the leak cannot be stopped in place, remove the leaking cylinder to a safe place and repair the leak or allow the cylinder to empty.

(b) Disposal: This substance, when discarded or disposed of, is a hazardous waste according to Federal regulations (40 CFR part 261). It is listed by the EPA as hazardous waste number D001 due to its ignitability. The transportation, storage, treatment, and disposal of this waste material must be conducted in compliance with 40 CFR parts 262, 263, 264, 268 and 270. Disposal can occur only in properly permitted facilities. Check state and local regulations for any additional requirements because these may be more restrictive than federal laws and regulations.

(4) Monitoring and Measurement Procedures.

(a) Exposure above the Permissible Exposure Limit (8-hr TWA) or Short-Term Exposure Limit (STEL):

(i) 8-hr TWA exposure evaluation: Measurements taken for the purpose of determining employee exposure under this standard are best taken with consecutive samples covering the full shift. Air samples must be taken in the employee's breathing zone (air that would most nearly represent that inhaled by the employee).

(ii) STEL exposure evaluation: Measurements must represent 15 minute exposures associated with operations most likely to exceed the STEL in each job and on each shift.

(iii) Monitoring frequencies: Table 1 gives various exposure scenarios and their required monitoring frequencies, as required by the final standard for occupational exposure to butadiene.

Table 1. - Five Exposure Scenarios and Their Associated Monitoring Frequencies

Action Level

8-hr TWA

STEL

Required Monitoring Activity

*

_

No 8-hr TWA or STEL monitoring required.

+*

_

No STEL monitoring required. Monitor 8-hr

     

TWA annually.

+

_

No STEL monitoring required. Periodic

     

monitoring 8-hr TWA, in accordance with

     

(4)(c)(iii).**

+

+

+

Periodic monitoring 8-hr TWA, in accordance

     

with (4)(c)(iii)**. Periodic monitoring STEL

     

in accordance with (4)(c)(iii).

+

_

+

Periodic monitoring STEL, in accordance with (4)(c)(iii). Monitor 8-hr TWA annually.

Footnote(*) Exposure Scenario, Limit Exceeded: + = Yes, - = No.

Footnote(**) The employer may decrease the frequency of exposure monitoring to annually when at least 2 consecutive measurements taken at least 7 days apart show exposures to be below the 8-hr TWA, but at or above the action level.

(iv) Monitoring techniques: Appendix D describes the validated method of sampling and analysis which has been tested by OSHA for use with BD. The employer has the obligation of selecting a monitoring method which meets the accuracy and precision requirements of the standard under his or her unique field conditions. The standard requires that the method of monitoring must be accurate, to a 95 percent confidence level, to plus or minus 25 percent for concentrations of BD at or above 1 ppm, and to plus or minus 35 percent for concentrations below 1 ppm.

(5) Personal Protective Equipment.

(a) Employees should be provided with and required to use impervious clothing, gloves, face shields (eight-inch minimum), and other appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent the skin from becoming frozen from contact with liquid BD.

(b) Any clothing which becomes wet with liquid BD should be removed immediately and not re-worn until the butadiene has evaporated.

(c) Employees should be provided with and required to use splash proof safety goggles where liquid BD may contact the eyes.

(6) Housekeeping and Hygiene Facilities.

For purposes of complying with WAC 296-800-220 and 296-800-230, the following items should be emphasized:

(a) The workplace should be kept clean, orderly, and in a sanitary condition.

(b) Adequate washing facilities with hot and cold water are to be provided and maintained in a sanitary condition.

(7) Additional Precautions.

(a) Store BD in tightly closed containers in a cool, well-ventilated area and take all necessary precautions to avoid any explosion hazard.

(b) Non-sparking tools must be used to open and close metal containers. These containers must be effectively grounded.

(c) Do not incinerate BD cartridges, tanks or other containers.

(d) Employers must advise employees of all areas and operations where exposure to BD might occur.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .020, .040, .050, and .060. 07-03-163 (Order 06-30), § 296-62-07640, filed 01/24/07, effective 04/01/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, .060. 05-03-093 (Order 04-41), § 296-62-07460, filed 01/18/05, effective 03/01/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 03-18-090 (Order 03-15), § 296-62-07460, filed 09/02/03, effective 11/01/03. Statutory Authority: Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 97-19-014 (Order 97-07), 296-62-7460, filed 10/05/97, effective 11/05/97.]

Appendix C. Medical Screening and Surveillance for 1,3-Butadiene (Non-Mandatory)

(1) Basis for Medical Screening and Surveillance Requirements.

(a) Route of Entry Inhalation.

(b) Toxicology.

Inhalation of BD has been linked to an increased risk of cancer, damage to the reproductive organs, and fetotoxicity. Butadiene can be converted via oxidation to epoxybutene and diepoxybutane, two genotoxic metabolites that may play a role in the expression of BD's toxic effects. BD has been tested for carcinogenicity in mice and rats. Both species responded to BD exposure by developing cancer at multiple primary organ sites. Early deaths in mice were caused by malignant lymphomas, primarily lymphocytic type, originating in the thymus.

Mice exposed to BD have developed ovarian or testicular atrophy. Sperm head morphology tests also revealed abnormal sperm in mice exposed to BD; lethal mutations were found in a dominant lethal test. In light of these results in animals, the possibility that BD may adversely affect the reproductive systems of male and female workers must be considered.

Additionally, anemia has been observed in animals exposed to butadiene. In some cases, this anemia appeared to be a primary response to exposure; in other cases, it may have been secondary to a neoplastic response.

(c) Epidemiology.

Epidemiologic evidence demonstrates that BD exposure poses an increased risk of leukemia. Mild alterations of hematologic parameters have also been observed in synthetic rubber workers exposed to BD.

(2) Potential Adverse Health Effects.

(a) Acute.

Skin contact with liquid BD causes characteristic burns or frostbite. BD in gaseous form can irritate the eyes, nasal passages, throat, and lungs. Blurred vision, coughing, and drowsiness may also occur. Effects are mild at 2,000 ppm and pronounced at 8,000 ppm for exposures occurring over the full workshift.

At very high concentrations in air, BD is an anesthetic, causing narcosis, respiratory paralysis, unconsciousness, and death. Such concentrations are unlikely, however, except in an extreme emergency because BD poses an explosion hazard at these levels.

(b) Chronic.

The principal adverse health effects of concern are BD-induced lymphoma, leukemia and potential reproductive toxicity. Anemia and other changes in the peripheral blood cells may be indicators of excessive exposure to BD.

(c) Reproductive.

Workers may be concerned about the possibility that their BD exposure may be affecting their ability to procreate a healthy child. For workers with high exposures to BD, especially those who have experienced difficulties in conceiving, miscarriages, or stillbirths, appropriate medical and laboratory evaluation of fertility may be necessary to determine if BD is having any adverse effect on the reproductive system or on the health of the fetus.

(3) Medical Screening Components At-A-Glance.

(a) Health Questionnaire.

The most important goal of the health questionnaire is to elicit information from the worker regarding potential signs or symptoms generally related to leukemia or other blood abnormalities. Therefore, physicians or other licensed health care professionals should be aware of the presenting symptoms and signs of lymphohematopoietic disorders and cancers, as well as the procedures necessary to confirm or exclude such diagnoses. Additionally, the health questionnaire will assist with the identification of workers at greatest risk of developing leukemia or adverse reproductive effects from their exposures to BD

Workers with a history of reproductive difficulties or a personal or family history of immune deficiency syndromes, blood dyscrasias, lymphoma, or leukemia, and those who are or have been exposed to medicinal drugs or chemicals known to affect the hematopoietic or lymphatic systems may be at higher risk from their exposure to BD. After the initial administration, the health questionnaire must be updated annually.

(b) Complete Blood Count (CBC).

The medical screening and surveillance program requires an annual CBC, with differential and platelet count, to be provided for each employee with BD exposure. This test is to be performed on a blood sample obtained by phlebotomy of the venous system or, if technically feasible, from a fingerstick sample of capillary blood. The sample is to be analyzed by an accredited laboratory.

Abnormalities in a CBC may be due to a number of different etiologies. The concern for workers exposed to BD includes, but is not limited to, timely identification of lymphohematopoietic cancers, such as leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Abnormalities of portions of the CBC are identified by comparing an individual's results to those of an established range of normal values for males and females. A substantial change in any individual employee's CBC may also be viewed as “abnormal” for that individual even if all measurements fall within the population-based range of normal values. It is suggested that a flowsheet for laboratory values be included in each employee's medical record so that comparisons and trends in annual CBCs can be easily made.

A determination of the clinical significance of an abnormal CBC shall be the responsibility of the examining physician, other licensed health care professional, or medical specialist to whom the employee is referred. Ideally, an abnormal CBC should be compared to previous CBC measurements for the same employee, when available. Clinical common sense may dictate that a CBC value that is very slightly outside the normal range does not warrant medical concern. A CBC abnormality may also be the result of a temporary physical stressor, such as a transient viral illness, blood donation, or menorrhagia, or laboratory error. In these cases, the CBC should be repeated in a timely fashion, i.e., within 6 weeks, to verify that return to the normal range has occurred. A clinically significant abnormal CBC should result in removal of the employee from further exposure to BD. Transfer of the employee to other work duties in a BD-free environment would be the preferred recommendation.

(c) Physical Examination.

The medical screening and surveillance program requires an initial physical examination for workers exposed to BD; this examination is repeated once every three years. The initial physical examination should assess each worker's baseline general health and rule out clinical signs of medical conditions that may be caused by or aggravated by occupational BD exposure. The physical examination should be directed at identification of signs of lymphohematopoietic disorders, including lymph node enlargement, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly.

Repeated physical examinations should update objective clinical findings that could be indicative of interim development of a lymphohematopoietic disorder, such as lymphoma, leukemia, or other blood abnormality. Physical examinations may also be provided on an as needed basis in order to follow up on a positive answer on the health questionnaire, or in response to an abnormal CBC. Physical examination of workers who will no longer be working in jobs with BD exposure are intended to rule out lymphohematopoietic disorders.

The need for physical examinations for workers concerned about adverse reproductive effects from their exposure to BD should be identified by the physician or other licensed health care professional and provided accordingly. For these P workers, such consultations and examinations may relate to developmental toxicity and reproductive capacity.

Physical examination of workers acutely exposed to significant levels of BD should be especially directed at the respiratory system, eyes, sinuses, skin, nervous system, and any region associated with particular complaints. If the worker has received a severe acute exposure, hospitalization may be required to assure proper medical management. Since this type of exposure may place workers at greater risk of blood abnormalities, a CBC must be obtained within 48 hours and repeated at one, two, and three months.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 97-19-014 (Order 97-07), 296-62-7460, filed 10/05/97, effective 11/05/97.]

Appendix D: Sampling and Analytical Method for 1,3-Butadiene (Non-Mandatory)

OSHA Method No.: 56.

Matrix: Air.

Target concentration: 1 ppm (2.21 mg/m3).

Procedure: Air samples are collected by drawing known volumes of air through sampling tubes containing charcoal adsorbent which has been coated with 4-tert-butylcatechol. The samples are desorbed with carbon disulfide and then analyzed by gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector.

Recommended sampling rate and air volume: 0.05 L/min and 3 L.

Detection limit of the overall procedure: 90 ppb (200 ug/m3) (based on 3 L air volume).

Reliable quantitation limit: 155 ppb (343 ug/m3) (based on 3 L air volume).

Standard error of estimate at the target concentration: 6.5%.

Special requirements: The sampling tubes must be coated with 4-tert-butylcatechol. Collected samples should be stored in a freezer.

Status of method: A sampling and analytical method has been subjected to the established evaluation procedures of the Organic Methods Evaluation Branch, OSHA Analytical Laboratory, Salt Lake City, Utah 84165.

(1) Background.

This work was undertaken to develop a sampling and analytical procedure for BD at 1 ppm. The current method recommended by OSHA for collecting BD uses activated coconut shell charcoal as the sampling medium (Ref. 5.2). This method was found to be inadequate for use at low BD levels because of sample instability.

The stability of samples has been significantly improved through the use of a specially cleaned charcoal which is coated with 4-tert-butylcatechol (TBC). TBC is a polymerization inhibitor for BD (Ref. 5.3).

(a) Toxic effects.

Symptoms of human exposure to BD include irritation of the eyes, nose and throat. It can also cause coughing, drowsiness and fatigue. Dermatitis and frostbite can result from skin exposure to liquid BD. (Ref. 5.1)

NIOSH recommends that BD be handled in the workplace as a potential occupational carcinogen. This recommendation is based on two inhalation studies that resulted in cancers at multiple sites in rats and in mice. BD has also demonstrated mutagenic activity in the presence of a liver microsomal activating system. It has also been reported to have adverse reproductive effects. (Ref. 5.1)

(b) Potential workplace exposure.

About 90% of the annual production of BD is used to manufacture styrene-butadiene rubber and Polybutadiene rubber. Other uses include: Polychloroprene rubber, acrylonitrile butadiene-styrene resins, nylon intermediates, styrene-butadiene latexes, butadiene polymers, thermoplastic elastomers, nitrile resins, methyl methacrylate-butadiene styrene resins and chemical intermediates. (Ref. 5.1)

(c) Physical properties (Ref. 5.1).

CAS No.: 106-99-0

Molecular weight: 54.1

Appearance: Colorless gas

Boiling point: -4.41 deg. C (760 mm Hg)

Freezing point: -108.9 deg. C

Vapor pressure: 2 atm (a) 15.3 deg. C; 5 atm (a) 47 deg. C

Explosive limits: 2 to 11.5% (by volume in air)

Odor threshold: 0.45 ppm

Structural formula: H2C:CHCH:CH2

Synonyms: BD; biethylene; bivinyl; butadiene; divinyl; buta-1,3-diene; alpha-gamma-butadiene; erythrene; NCI-C50602; pyrrolylene; vinylethylene.

(d) Limit defining parameters.

The analyte air concentrations listed throughout this method are based on an air volume of 3 L and a desorption volume of 1 mL. Air concentrations listed in ppm are referenced to 25 deg. C and 760 mm Hg.

(e) Detection limit of the analytical procedure.

The detection limit of the analytical procedure was 304 pg per injection. This was the amount of BD which gave a response relative to the interferences present in a standard.

(f) Detection limit of the overall procedure.

The detection limit of the overall procedure was 0.60 ug per sample (90 ppb or 200 ug/m3). This amount was determined graphically. It was the amount of analyte which, when spiked on the sampling device, would allow recovery approximately equal to the detection limit of the analytical procedure.

(g) Reliable quantitation limit.

The reliable quantitation limit was 1.03 ug per sample (155 ppb or 343 ug/m3). This was the smallest amount of analyte which could be quantitated within the limits of a recovery of at least 75% and a precision (+/- 1.96 SD) of +/- 25% or better.

(h) Sensitivity.(1)

Footnote(1) The reliable quantitation limit and detection limits reported in the method are based upon optimization of the instrument for the smallest possible amount of analyte. When the target concentration of an analyte is exceptionally higher than these limits, they may not be attainable at the routine operation parameters.

The sensitivity of the analytical procedure over a concentration range representing 0.6 to 2 times the target concentration, based on the recommended air volume, was 387 area units per ug/mL. This value was determined from the slope of the calibration curve. The sensitivity may vary with the particular instrument used in the analysis.

(i) Recovery.

The recovery of BD from samples used in storage tests remained above 77% when the samples were stored at ambient temperature and above 94% when the samples were stored at refrigerated temperature. These values were determined from regression lines which were calculated from the storage data. The recovery of the analyte from the collection device must be at least 75% following storage.

(j) Precision (analytical method only).

The pooled coefficient of variation obtained from replicate determinations of analytical standards over the range of 0.6 to 2 times the target concentration was 0.011.

(k) Precision (overall procedure).

The precision at the 95% confidence level for the refrigerated temperature storage test was +/- 12.7%. This value includes an additional +/- 5% for sampling error. The overall procedure must provide results at the target concentrations that are +/- 25% at the 95% confidence level.

(l) Reproducibility.

Samples collected from a controlled test atmosphere and a draft copy of this procedure were given to a chemist unassociated with this evaluation. The average recovery was 97.2% and the standard deviation was 6.2%.

(2) Sampling procedure.

(a) Apparatus. Samples are collected by use of a personal sampling pump that can be calibrated to within +/- 5% of the recommended 0.05 L/min sampling rate with the sampling tube in line.

(b) Samples are collected with laboratory prepared sampling tubes. The sampling tube is constructed of silane-treated glass and is about 5-cm long. The ID is 4 mm and the OD is 6 mm. One end of the tube is tapered so that a glass wool end plug will hold the contents of the tube in place during sampling. The opening in the tapered end of the sampling tube is at least one-half the ID of the tube (2 mm). The other end of the sampling tube is open to its full 4-mm ID to facilitate packing of the tube. Both ends of the tube are fire-polished for safety. The tube is packed with 2 sections of pretreated charcoal which has been coated with TBC. The tube is packed with a 50-mg backup section, located nearest the tapered end, and with a 100-mg sampling section of charcoal. The two sections of coated adsorbent are separated and retained with small plugs of silanized glass wool. Following packing, the sampling tubes are sealed with two 7/32 inch OD plastic end caps.

Instructions for the pretreatment and coating of the charcoal are presented in Section 4.1 of this method.

(c) Reagents.

None required.

(d) Technique.

(i) Properly label the sampling tube before sampling and then remove the plastic end caps.

(ii) Attach the sampling tube to the pump using a section of flexible plastic tubing such that the larger front section of the sampling tube is exposed directly to the atmosphere. Do not place any tubing ahead of the sampling tube. The sampling tube should be attached in the worker's breathing zone in a vertical manner such that it does not impede work performance.

(iii) After sampling for the appropriate time, remove the sampling tube from the pump and then seal the tube with plastic end caps. Wrap the tube lengthwise.

(iv) Include at least one blank for each sampling set. The blank should be handled in the same manner as the samples with the exception that air is not drawn through it.

(v) List any potential interferences on the sample data sheet.

(vi) The samples require no special shipping precautions under normal conditions. The samples should be refrigerated if they are to be exposed to higher than normal ambient temperatures. If the samples are to be stored before they are shipped to the laboratory, they should be kept in a freezer. The samples should be placed in a freezer upon receipt at the laboratory.

(e) Breakthrough.

(Breakthrough was defined as the relative amount of analyte found on the backup section of the tube in relation to the total amount of analyte collected on the sampling tube. Five-percent breakthrough occurred after sampling a test atmosphere containing 2.0 ppm BD for 90 min. at 0.05 L/min. At the end of this time 4.5 L of air had been sampled and 20.1 ug of the analyte was collected. The relative humidity of the sampled air was 80% at 23 deg. C.)

Breakthrough studies have shown that the recommended sampling procedure can be used at air concentrations higher than the target concentration. The sampling time, however, should be reduced to 45 min. if both the expected BD level and the relative humidity of the sampled air are high.

(f) Desorption efficiency.

The average desorption efficiency for BD from TBC coated charcoal over the range from 0.6 to 2 times the target concentration was 96.4%. The efficiency was essentially constant over the range studied.

(g) Recommended air volume and sampling rate.

(h) The recommended air volume is 3 L.

(i) The recommended sampling rate is 0.05 L/min. for 1 hour.

(j) Interferences.

There are no known interferences to the sampling method.

(k) Safety precautions.

(i) Attach the sampling equipment to the worker in such a manner that it will not interfere with work performance or safety.

(ii) Follow all safety practices that apply to the work area being sampled.

(3) Analytical procedure.

(a) Apparatus.

(i) A gas chromatograph (GC), equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID).(2)

Footnote(2) A Hewlett-Packard Model 5840A GC was used for this evaluation. Injections were performed using a Hewlett-Packard Model 7671A automatic sampler.

(ii) A GC column capable of resolving the analytes from any interference.(3)

Footnote(3) A 20-ft x 1/8-inch OD stainless steel GC column containing 20% FFAP on 80/100 mesh Chromabsorb W-AW-DMCS was used for this evaluation.

(iii) Vials, glass 2-mL with Teflonlined caps.

(iv) Disposable Pasteur-type pipets, volumetric flasks, pipets and syringes for preparing samples and standards, making dilutions and performing injections.

(b) Reagents.

(i) Carbon disulfide.(4)

Footnote(4) Fisher Scientific Company A.C.S. Reagent Grade solvent was used in this evaluation.

The benzene contaminant that was present in the carbon disulfide was used as an internal standard (ISTD) in this evaluation.

(ii) Nitrogen, hydrogen and air, GC grade.

(iii) BD of known high purity.(5)

Footnote(5) Matheson Gas Products, CP Grade 1,3-butadiene was used in this study.

(c) Standard preparation.

(i) Prepare standards by diluting known volumes of BD gas with carbon disulfide. This can be accomplished by injecting the appropriate volume of BD into the headspace above the 1-mL of carbon disulfide contained in sealed 2-mL vial. Shake the vial after the needle is removed from the septum.(6)

Footnote(6) A standard containing 7.71 ug/mL (at ambient temperature and pressure) was prepared by diluting 4 uL of the gas with 1-mL of carbon disulfide.

(ii) The mass of BD gas used to prepare standards can be determined by use of the following equations:

MV = (760/BP)(273+t)/(273)(22.41)

Where:

MV = ambient molar volume BP = ambient barometric pressure T = ambient temperature ug/uL = 54.09/MV ug/standard = (ug/uL)(uL) BD used to prepare the standard.

(d) Sample preparation.

(i) Transfer the 100-mg section of the sampling tube to a 2-mL vial. Place the 50-mg section in a separate vial. If the glass wool plugs contain a significant amount of charcoal, place them with the appropriate sampling tube section.

(ii) Add 1-mL of carbon disulfide to each vial.

(iii) Seal the vials with Teflonlined caps and then allow them to desorb for one hour. Shake the vials by hand vigorously several times during the desorption period.

(iv) If it is not possible to analyze the samples within 4 hours, separate the carbon disulfide from the charcoal, using a disposable Pasteur-type pipet, following the one hour. This separation will improve the stability of desorbed samples.

(v) Save the used sampling tubes to be cleaned and repacked with fresh adsorbent.

(e) Analysis.

(i) GC Conditions.

Column temperature: 95 deg. C

Injector temperature: 180 deg. C

Detector temperature: 275 deg. C

Carrier gas flow rate: 30 mL/min.

Injection volume: 0.80 uL

GC column: 20-ft x 1/8-in OD stainless steel GC column containing 20%

FFAP on 80/100 Chromabsorb W-AW-DMCS.

(ii) Chromatogram. See Section 4.2.

(iii) Use a suitable method, such as electronic or peak heights, to measure detector response.

(iv) Prepare a calibration curve using several standard solutions of different concentrations.

Prepare the calibration curve daily. Program the integrator to report the results in ug/mL.

(v) Bracket sample concentrations with standards.

(f) Interferences (analytical).

(i) Any compound with the same general retention time as the analyte and which also gives a detector response is a potential interference. Possible interferences should be reported by the industrial hygienist to the laboratory with submitted samples.

(ii) GC parameters (temperature, column, etc.) may be changed to circumvent interferences.

(iii) A useful means of structure designation is GC/MS. It is recommended that this procedure be used to confirm samples whenever possible.

(g) Calculations.

(i) Results are obtained by use of calibration curves. Calibration curves are prepared by plotting detector response against concentration for each standard. The best line through the data points is determined by curve fitting.

(ii) The concentration, in ug/mL, for a particular sample is determined by comparing its detector response to the calibration curve. If any analyte is found on the backup section, this amount is added to the amount found on the front section. Blank corrections should be performed before adding the results together.

(iii) The BD air concentration can be expressed using the following equation:

mg/m3 = (A)(B)/(C)(D)

Where:

A = ug/mL from Section 3.7.2 B = volume C = L of air sampled D = efficiency

(iv) The following equation can be used to convert results in mg/m3 to ppm:

ppm = (mg/m3)(24.46)/54.09

Where:

mg/m3 = result from Section 3.7.3. 24.46 = molar volume of an ideal gas at 760 mm Hg and 25 deg. C.

(h) Safety precautions (analytical).

(i) Avoid skin contact and inhalation of all chemicals.

(ii) Restrict the use of all chemicals to a fume hood whenever possible.

(iii) Wear safety glasses and a lab coat in all laboratory areas.

(4) Additional Information.

(a) A procedure to prepare specially cleaned charcoal coated with TBC.

(i) Apparatus.

(A) Magnetic stirrer and stir bar.

(B) Tube furnace capable of maintaining a temperature of 700 deg. C and equipped with a quartz tube that can hold 30 g of charcoal.(8)

Footnote(8) A Lindberg Type 55035 Tube furnace was used in this evaluation.

(C) A means to purge nitrogen gas through the charcoal inside the quartz tube.

(D) Water bath capable of maintaining a temperature of 60 deg. C.

(E) Miscellaneous laboratory equipment: One-liter vacuum flask, 1-L Erlenmeyer flask, 350-M1 Buchner funnel with a coarse fitted disc, 4-oz brown bottle, rubber stopper, Teflon tape etc.

(ii) Reagents.

(A) Phosphoric acid, 10% by weight, in water.(9)

Footnote(9) Baker Analyzed Reagent grade was diluted with water for use in this evaluation.

(B) 4-tert-Butylcatechol (TBC).(10)

Footnote(10) The Aldrich Chemical Company 99% grade was used in this evaluation.

(C) Specially cleaned coconut shell charcoal, 20/40 mesh.(11)

Footnote(11) Specially cleaned charcoal was obtained from Supelco, Inc. for use in this evaluation. The cleaning process used by Supelco is proprietary.

(D) Nitrogen gas, GC grade.

(iii) Procedure.

Weigh 30g of charcoal into a 500-mL Erlenmeyer flask. Add about 250 mL of 10% phosphoric acid to the flask and then swirl the mixture. Stir the mixture for 1 hour using a magnetic stirrer. Filter the mixture using a fitted Buchner funnel. Wash the charcoal several times with 250-mL portions of deionized water to remove all traces of the acid.

Transfer the washed charcoal to the tube furnace quartz tube. Place the quartz tube in the furnace and then connect the nitrogen gas purge to the tube. Fire the charcoal to 700 deg. C. Maintain that temperature for at least 1 hour. After the charcoal has cooled to room temperature, transfer it to a tared beaker. Determine the weight of the charcoal and then add an amount of TBC which is 10% of the charcoal, by weight.

CAUTION-TBC is toxic and should only be handled in a fume hood while wearing gloves.

Carefully mix the contents of the beaker and then transfer the mixture to a 4-oz bottle. Stopper the bottle with a clean rubber stopper which has been wrapped with Teflon tape. Clamp the bottle in a water bath so that the water level is above the charcoal level. Gently heat the bath to 60 deg. C and then maintain that temperature for 1 hour. Cool the charcoal to room temperature and then transfer the coated charcoal to a suitable container.

The coated charcoal is now ready to be packed into sampling tubes. The sampling tubes should be stored in a sealed container to prevent contamination. Sampling tubes should be stored in the dark at room temperature. The sampling tubes should be segregated by coated adsorbent lot number.

(b) Chromatogram

The chromatograms were obtained using the recommended analytical method. The chart speed was set at 1 cm/min. for the first three min. and then at 0.2 cm/min. for the time remaining in the analysis.

The peak which elutes just before BD is a reaction product between an impurity on the charcoal and TBC. This peak is always present, but it is easily resolved from the analyte. The peak which elutes immediately before benzene is an oxidation product of TBC.

(5) References.

(a) “Current Intelligence Bulletin 41, 1,3-Butadiene,” U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, NIOSH.

(b) “NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods,” 2nd ed.; U.S. Dept. of Health Education and Welfare, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health: Cincinnati, OH. 1977, Vol. 2, Method No. S91 DHEW (NIOSH) Publ. (U.S.), No. 77-157-B.

(c) Hawley, G.C., Ed. “The Condensed Chemical Dictionary,” 8th ed.; Van Nostrand Rienhold Company: New York, 1971; 139.5.4. Chem. Eng. News (June 10, 1985), (63), 22-66.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 97-19-014 (Order 97-07), 296-62-7460, filed 10/05/97, effective 11/05/97.]

Appendix E:   Reserved.

APPENDIX F, MEDICAL QUESTIONNAIRES, (Non-mandatory)

1,3-Butadiene (BD) Initial Health Questionnaire

DIRECTIONS:

You have been asked to answer the questions on this form because you work with BD (butadiene). These questions are about your work, medical history, and health concerns. Please do your best to answer all of the questions. If you need help, please tell the doctor or health care professional who reviews this form.

This form is a confidential medical record. Only information directly related to your health and safety on the job may be given to your employer. Personal health information will not be given to anyone without your consent.

Date:

Name: SSN: / /

Last First MI

Job Title:

Company's Name:

Supervisor's Name: Supervisor's Phone No.: ()-

Work History:

1. Please list all jobs you have had in the past, starting with the job you have now and moving back in time to your first job. (For more space, write on the back of this page.)

Main Job Duty

Year

Company Name

City, State

Chemicals

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

2. Please describe what you do during a typical work day. Be sure to tell about your work with BD.

3. Please check any of these chemicals that you work with now or have worked with in the past:

benzene

glues

toluene

inks, dyes

other solvents, grease cutters

insecticides (like DDT, lindane, etc.)

paints, varnishes, thinners, strippers

dusts

carbon tetrachloride (“carbon tet”)

arsine

carbon disulfide

lead

cement

petroleum products

nitrites

4. Please check the protective clothing or equipment you use at the job you have now:

gloves

coverall

respirator

dust mask

safety glasses, goggles

Please circle your answer.

5. Does your protective clothing or equipment fit you properly? yes no

6. Have you ever made changes in your protective clothing or equipment 

to make it fit better?  yes no

7. Have you been exposed to BD when you were not wearing protective

 clothing or equipment?  yes no

8. Where do you eat, drink and/or smoke when you are at work? 

(Please check all that apply.)

Cafeteria/restaurant/snack bar

Break room/employee lounge

Smoking lounge

At my work station

Please circle your answer.

9. Have you been exposed to radiation (like x-rays or nuclear material) at the job 

you have now or at past jobs?  yes no

10. Do you have any hobbies that expose you to dusts or chemicals 

(including paints, glues, etc.)?  yes no

11. Do you have any second or side jobs? yes no

If yes, what are your duties there?

12. Were you in the military? yes no

If yes, what did you do in the military?

Family Health History

1. In the FAMILY MEMBER column, across from the disease name, write which

family member, if any, had the disease.

DISEASE                                                 FAMILY MEMBER

Cancer

Lymphoma

Sickle Cell Disease or Trait

Immune Disease

Leukemia

Anemia

2. Please fill in the following information about family health

Relative

Alive?

Age at Death?

Cause of Death?

Father

Mother

Brother/Sister

Brother/Sister

Brother/Sister

Personal Health History

Birth Date// Age Sex Height Weight

Please circle your answer.

1. Do you smoke any tobacco products? yes no

2. Have you ever had any kind of surgery or operation? yes no

If yes, what type of surgery:

3. Have you ever been in the hospital for any other reasons? yes no

If yes, please describe the reason:

4. Do you have any on-going or current medical problems or conditions? yes no

If yes, please describe:

5. Do you now have or have you ever had any of the following? Please check 

all that apply to you.

unexplained fever

anemia (“low blood”)

HIV/AIDS

weakness

sickle cell

miscarriage

skin rash

bloody stools

leukemia/lymphoma

neck mass/swelling

wheezing

yellowing of skin

bruising easily

lupus

weight loss

kidney problems

enlarged lymph nodes

liver disease

cancer

infertility

drinking problems

thyroid problems

night sweats

chest pain

still birth

eye redness

lumps you can feel

child with birth defect

autoimmune disease

overly tired

lung problems

rheumatoid arthritis

mononucleosis (“mono”)

nagging cough

Please circle your answer.

6. Do you have any symptoms or health problems that you think may be related to your work with BD? yes no

If yes, please describe:

7. Have any of your co-workers had similar symptoms or problems?

yes    no    don't know

If yes, please describe:

8. Do you notice any irritation of your eyes, nose, throat, lungs, or skin when 

working with BD?  yes no

9. Do you notice any blurred vision, coughing, drowsiness, nausea, or headache 

when working with BD? yes no

10. Do you take any medications (including birth control or over-the-counter)?  yes no

If yes, please list:

11. Are you allergic to any medication, food, or chemicals?  yes no

If yes, please list:

12. Do you have any health conditions not covered by this questionnaire that you 

think are affected by your work with BD?  yes no

If yes, please explain:

13. Did you understand all the questions?  yes no

Signature

1,3-Butadiene (BD) Health Update Questionnaire

DIRECTIONS:

You have been asked to answer the questions on this form because you work with BD (butadiene). These questions are about your work, medical history, and health concerns. Please do your best to answer all of the questions. If you need help, please tell the doctor or health care professional who reviews this form.

This form is a confidential medical record. Only information directly related to your health and safety on the job may be given to your employer. Personal health information will not be given to anyone without your consent.

Date:

Name: SSN://

Last First MI

Job Title:

Company's Name:

Supervisor's Name: Supervisor's Phone No.:()-

1. Please describe any NEW duties that you have at your Please describe any additional job duties you have:

Please circle your answer.

3. Are you exposed to any other chemicals in your work since the last time you were evaluated for exposure to BD? yes no

If yes, please list what they are:

4. Does your personal protective equipment and clothing fit you properly? yes no

5. Have you made changes in this equipment or clothing to make if fit better? yes no

6. Have you been exposed to BD when you were not wearing protective

 clothing or equipment?  yes no

7. Are you exposed to any NEW chemicals at home or while working on hobbies? yes no

If yes, please list what they are:

8. Since your last BD health evaluation, have you started working any new 

second or side jobs?  yes no

If yes, what are your duties there?

Personal Health History

1. What is your current weight? pounds

2. Have you been diagnosed with any new medical conditions or illness since your last

evaluation? yes no

If yes, please tell what they are:

3. Since your last evaluation, have you been in the hospital for any 

illnesses, injuries, or surgery?  yes no

If yes, please describe:

4. Do you have any of the following? Please place a check for all that apply to you.

unexplained fever

anemia (“low blood”)

HIV/AIDS

weakness

sickle cell

miscarriage

skin rash

bloody stools

leukemia/lymphoma

neck mass/swelling

wheezing

yellowing of skin

bruising easily

lupus

weight loss

kidney problems

enlarged lymph nodes

liver disease

cancer

infertility

drinking problems

thyroid problems

night sweats

chest pain

still birth

eye redness

lumps you can feel

child with birth defect

autoimmune disease

overly tired

lung problems

rheumatoid arthritis

mononucleosis (“mono”)

nagging cough

Please circle your answer.

5. Do you have any symptoms or health problems that you think may be related to your 

work with BD? yes no

If yes, please describe:

6. Have any of your co-workers had similar symptoms or problems?

yes    no    don't know

If yes, please describe:

7. Do you notice any irritation of your eyes, nose, throat, lungs, or skin when 

working with BD?  yes no

8. Do you notice any blurred vision, coughing, drowsiness, nausea, or headache

 when working with BD?  yes no

9. Have you been taking any NEW medications (including birth control or 

over-the-counter)?  yes no

If yes, please list:

10. Have you developed any new allergies to medications, foods, or chemicals? yes no

If yes, please list:

11. Do you have any health conditions not covered by this questionnaire that 

you think are affected by your work with BD? yes no

If yes, please

12. Do you understand all the questions? yes no

*Signature

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 09-15-145 (Order 09-04), § 296-62-07460, filed 07/21/09, effective 09/01/09. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .020, .040, .050, and .060. 07-03-163 (Order 06-30), § 296-62-07640, filed 01/24/07, effective 04/01/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 03-18-090 (Order 03-15), § 296-62-07460, filed 09/02/03, effective 11/01/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 01-11-038 (Order 99-36), 296-62-07460, filed 05/09/01, effective 09/01/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 99-10 (Order 98-10) 296-62-07460, filed 05/04/99, effective 09/01/99. Statutory Authority: Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 97-19-014 (Order 97-07), 296-62-07460, filed 10/05/97, effective 11/05/97.]

WAC 296-62-07470 Methylene chloride.

Printable version of this section only.

This occupational health standard establishes requirements for employers to control occupational exposure to methylene chloride (MC). Employees exposed to MC are at increased risk of developing cancer, adverse effects on the heart, central nervous system and liver, and skin or eye irritation. Exposure may occur through inhalation, by absorption through the skin, or through contact with the skin. MC is a solvent which is used in many different types of work activities, such as paint stripping, polyurethane foam manufacturing, and cleaning and degreasing. Under the requirements of subsection (4) of this section, each covered employer must make an initial determination of each employee's exposure to MC. If the employer determines that employees are exposed below the action level, the only other provisions of this section that apply are that a record must be made of the determination, the employees must receive information and training under subsection (12) of this section and, where appropriate, employees must be protected from contact with liquid MC under subsection (8) of this section.

The provisions of the MC standard are as follows:

(1) Scope and application. This section applies to all occupational exposures to methylene chloride (MC), Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 75-09-2, in general industry, construction and shipyard employment.

(2) Definitions. For the purposes of this section, the following definitions shall apply:

“Action level” means a concentration of airborne MC of 12.5 parts per million (ppm) calculated as an eight (8)-hour time-weighted average (TWA).

“Authorized person” means any person specifically authorized by the employer and required by work duties to be present in regulated areas, or any person entering such an area as a designated representative of employees for the purpose of exercising the right to observe monitoring and measuring procedures under subsection (4) of this section, or any other person authorized by the WISH Act or regulations issued under the act.

“Director” means the director of the department of labor and industries, or designee.

“Emergency” means any occurrence, such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment, which results, or is likely to result in an uncontrolled release of MC. If an incidental release of MC can be controlled by employees such as maintenance personnel at the time of release and in accordance with the leak/spill provisions required by subsection (6) of this section, it is not considered an emergency as defined by this standard.

“Employee exposure” means exposure to airborne MC which occurs or would occur if the employee were not using respiratory protection.

“Methylene chloride (MC)” means an organic compound with chemical formula, CH2C12. Its Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number is 75-09-2. Its molecular weight is 84.9 g/mole.

“Physician or other licensed health care professional” is an individual whose legally permitted scope of practice (i.e., license, registration, or certification) allows him or her to independently provide or be delegated the responsibility to provide some or all of the health care services required by subsection (10) of this section.

“Regulated area” means an area, demarcated by the employer, where an employee's exposure to airborne concentrations of MC exceeds or can reasonably be expected to exceed either the 8-hour TWA PEL or the STEL.

“Symptom” means central nervous system effects such as headaches, disorientation, dizziness, fatigue, and decreased attention span; skin effects such as chapping, erythema, cracked skin, or skin burns; and cardiac effects such as chest pain or shortness of breath.

“This section” means this methylene chloride standard.

(3) Permissible exposure limits (PELs).

(a) Eight-hour time-weighted average (TWA) PEL. The employer shall ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of MC in excess of twenty-five parts of MC per million parts of air (25 ppm) as an 8-hour TWA.

(b) Short-term exposure limit (STEL). The employer shall ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of MC in excess of one hundred and twenty-five parts of MC per million parts of air (125 ppm) as determined over a sampling period of fifteen minutes.

(4) Exposure monitoring.

(a) Characterization of employee exposure.

(i) Where MC is present in the workplace, the employer shall determine each employee's exposure by either:

(A) Taking a personal breathing zone air sample of each employee's exposure; or

(B) Taking personal breathing zone air samples that are representative of each employee's exposure.

(ii) Representative samples. The employer may consider personal breathing zone air samples to be representative of employee exposures when they are taken as follows:

(A) 8-hour TWA PEL. The employer has taken one or more personal breathing zone air samples for at least one employee in each job classification in a work area during every work shift, and the employee sampled is expected to have the highest MC exposure.

(B) Short-term exposure limits. The employer has taken one or more personal breathing zone air samples which indicate the highest likely 15-minute exposures during such operations for at least one employee in each job classification in the work area during every work shift, and the employee sampled is expected to have the highest MC exposure.

(C) Exception. Personal breathing zone air samples taken during one work shift may be used to represent employee exposures on other work shifts where the employer can document that the tasks performed and conditions in the workplace are similar across shifts.

(iii) Accuracy of monitoring. The employer shall ensure that the methods used to perform exposure monitoring produce results that are accurate to a confidence level of 95 percent, and are:

(A) Within plus or minus 25 percent for airborne concentrations of MC above the 8-hour TWA PEL or the STEL; or

(B) Within plus or minus 35 percent for airborne concentrations of MC at or above the action level but at or below the 8-hour TWA PEL.

(b) Initial determination. Each employer whose employees are exposed to MC shall perform initial exposure monitoring to determine each affected employee's exposure, except under the following conditions:

(i) Where objective data demonstrate that MC cannot be released in the workplace in airborne concentrations at or above the action level or above the STEL. The objective data shall represent the highest MC exposures likely to occur under reasonably foreseeable conditions of processing, use, or handling. The employer shall document the objective data exemption as specified in subsection (13) of this section;

(ii) Where the employer has performed exposure monitoring within 12 months prior to December 1, and that exposure monitoring meets all other requirements of this section, and was conducted under conditions substantially equivalent to existing conditions; or

(iii) Where employees are exposed to MC on fewer than 30 days per year (e.g., on a construction site), and the employer has measurements by direct reading instruments which give immediate results (such as a detector tube) and which provide sufficient information regarding employee exposures to determine what control measures are necessary to reduce exposures to acceptable levels.

(c) Periodic monitoring. Where the initial determination shows employee exposures at or above the action level or above the STEL, the employer shall establish an exposure monitoring program for periodic monitoring of employee exposure to MC in accordance with Table 1:

Table 1

Six Initial Determination Exposure Scenarios and Their Associated Monitoring Frequencies

Exposure scenario

Required monitoring activity

Below the action level and at or below the STEL.

No 8-hour TWA or STEL monitoring required.

Below the action level and above the STEL.

No 8-hour TWA monitoring required, monitor STEL exposures every three months.

At or above the action level, at or below the TWA, and at or below the STEL.

Monitor 8-hour TWA exposures every six months.

At or above the action level, at or below the TWA, and above the STEL.

Monitor 8-hour TWA exposures every six months and monitor STEL exposures every three months.

Above the TWA and at or below the STEL

Monitor 8-hour TWA exposures every three months. In addition, without regard to the last sentence of the note to subsection (3) of this section, the following employers must monitor STEL exposures every three months until either the date by which they must achieve the 8-hour TWAs PEL under subsection (3) of this section or the date by which they in fact achieve the 8-hour TWA PEL, whichever comes first. Employers engaged in polyurethane foam manufacturing; Foam fabrication; Furniture refinishing; General aviation aircraft stripping; Product formulation; Use of MC-based adhesives for boat building and repair; Recreational vehicle manufacture, van conversion, or upholstery, and use of MC in construction work for restoration and preservation of buildings, painting and paint removal, cabinet making, or floor refinishing and resurfacing.

Above the TWA and above the STEL

Monitor both 8-hour TWA exposures and STEL exposures every three months.

(Note to subsection (3)(c) of this section: The employer may decrease the frequency of exposure monitoring to every six months when at least 2 consecutive measurements taken at least 7 days apart show exposures to be at or below the 8-hour TWA PEL. The employer may discontinue the periodic 8-hour TWA monitoring for employees where at least two consecutive measurements taken at least 7 days apart are below the action level. The employer may discontinue the periodic STEL monitoring for employees where at least two consecutive measurements taken at least 7 days apart are at or below the STEL.)

(d) Additional monitoring.

(i) The employer shall perform exposure monitoring when a change in workplace conditions indicates that employee exposure may have increased. Examples of situations that may require additional monitoring include changes in production, process, control equipment, or work-practices, or a leak, rupture, or other breakdown.

(ii) Where exposure monitoring is performed due to a spill, leak, rupture or equipment breakdown, the employer shall clean up the MC and perform the appropriate repairs before monitoring.

(e) Employee notification of monitoring results.

(i) The employer shall, within 15 working days after the receipt of the results of any monitoring performed under this section, notify each affected employee of these results in writing, either individually or by posting of results in an appropriate location that is accessible to affected employees.

(ii) Whenever monitoring results indicate that employee exposure is above the 8-hour TWA PEL or the STEL, the employer shall describe in the written notification the corrective action being taken to reduce employee exposure to or below the 8-hour TWA PEL or STEL and the schedule for completion of this action.

(f) Observation of monitoring.

(i) Employee observation. The employer shall provide affected employees or their designated representatives an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to MC conducted in accordance with this section.

(ii) Observation procedures. When observation of the monitoring of employee exposure to MC requires entry into an area where the use of protective clothing or equipment is required, the employer shall provide, at no cost to the observer(s), and the observer(s) shall be required to use such clothing and equipment and shall comply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.

(5) Regulated areas.

(a) The employer shall establish a regulated area wherever an employee's exposure to airborne concentrations of MC exceeds or can reasonably be expected to exceed either the 8-hour TWA PEL or the STEL.

(b) The employer shall limit access to regulated areas to authorized persons.

(c) The employer shall supply a respirator, selected in accordance with subsection (7)(c) of this section, to each person who enters a regulated area and shall require each affected employee to use that respirator whenever MC exposures are likely to exceed the 8-hour TWA PEL or STEL.

(Note to subsection (5)(c) of this section: An employer who has implemented all feasible engineering, work-practice and administrative controls (as required in subsection (6) of this section), and who has established a regulated area (as required by subsection (5)(a) of this section) where MC exposure can be reliably predicted to exceed the 8-hour TWA PEL or the STEL only on certain days (for example, because of work or process schedule) would need to have affected employees use respirators in that regulated area only on those days.)

(d) The employer shall ensure that, within a regulated area, employees do not engage in nonwork activities which may increase dermal or oral MC exposure.

(e) The employer shall ensure that while employees are wearing respirators, they do not engage in activities (such as taking medication or chewing gum or tobacco) which interfere with respirator seal or performance.

(f) The employer shall demarcate regulated areas from the rest of the workplace in any manner that adequately establishes and alerts employees to the boundaries of the area and minimizes the number of authorized employees exposed to MC within the regulated area.

(g) An employer at a multi-employer worksite who establishes a regulated area shall communicate the access restrictions and locations of these areas to all other employers with work operations at that worksite.

(6) Methods of compliance.

(a) Engineering and work-practice controls. The employer shall institute and maintain the effectiveness of engineering controls and work-practices to reduce employee exposure to or below the PELs except to the extent that the employer can demonstrate that such controls are not feasible.

(b) Wherever the feasible engineering controls and work-practices which can be instituted are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the 8-TWA PEL or STEL, the employer shall use them to reduce employee exposure to the lowest levels achievable by these controls and shall supplement them by the use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of subsection (7) of this section.

(c) Prohibition of rotation. The employer shall not implement a schedule of employee rotation as a means of compliance with the PELs.

(d) Leak and spill detection.

(i) The employer shall implement procedures to detect leaks of MC in the workplace. In work areas where spills may occur, the employer shall make provisions to contain any spills and to safely dispose of any MC-contaminated waste materials.

(ii) The employer shall ensure that all incidental leaks are repaired and that incidental spills are cleaned promptly by employees who use the appropriate personal protective equipment and are trained in proper methods of cleanup.

(Note to subsection (6)(d)(ii) of this section: See Appendix A of this section for examples of procedures that satisfy this requirement. Employers covered by this standard may also be subject to the hazardous waste and emergency response provisions contained in WAC 296-62-3112.)

(7) Respiratory protection.

(a) General requirements. For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:

(i) Periods when an employee's exposure to MC exceeds or can reasonably be expected to exceed the 8-hour TWA PEL or the STEL for example, when an employee is using MC in a regulated area);

(ii) Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work-practice controls;

(iii) In a few work operations, such as some maintenance operations and repair activities, for which the employer demonstrates that engineering and work-practice controls are infeasible;

(iv) Work operations for which feasible engineering and work-practice controls are not sufficient to reduce exposures to or below the PELs;

(v) Emergencies.

(b) Respirator program.

(i) The employer must develop, implement and maintain a respiratory protection program as required by chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators, which covers each employee required by this chapter to use a respirator, except for the requirements in Table 5 of WAC 296-842-13005 that address gas or vapor cartridge change schedules and end-of-service-life indicators (ESLIs).

(ii) Employers who provide employees with gas masks with organic-vapor canisters for the purpose of emergency escape must replace the canisters after any emergency use and before the gas masks are returned to service.

(c) Respirator selection. The employer must:

(i) Select and provide to employees appropriate respirators according to this section and WAC 296-842-13005, found in the respirator rule.

(ii) Make sure half-facepiece respirators aren't selected or used for protection against MC. This is necessary to prevent eye irritation or damage from MC exposure.

(iii) Provide to employees, for emergency escape, one of the following respirator options:

(A) A self-contained breathing apparatus operated in the continuous-flow or pressure-demand mode.

OR

(B) A gas mask equipped with an organic vapor canister.

(d) Medical evaluation. Before having an employee use a supplied-air respirator in the negative-pressure mode, or a gas mask with an organic-vapor canister for emergency escape, the employer must:

(i) Have a physician or other licensed health care professional (PLHCP) evaluate the employee's ability to use such respiratory protection;

(ii) Ensure that the PLHCP provides their findings in a written opinion to the employee and the employer.

Note: See WAC 296-62-07150 through 296-62-07156 for medical evaluation requirements for employees using respirators.

(8) Protective work clothing and equipment.

(a) Where needed to prevent MC- induced skin or eye irritation, the employer shall provide clean protective clothing and equipment which is resistant to MC, at no cost to the employee, and shall ensure that each affected employee uses it. Eye and face protection shall meet the requirements of WAC 296-800-160, as applicable.

(b) The employer shall clean, launder, repair and replace all protective clothing and equipment required by this subsection as needed to maintain their effectiveness.

(c) The employer shall be responsible for the safe disposal of such clothing and equipment.

(Note to subsection (8)(c) of this section: See Appendix A for examples of disposal procedures that will satisfy this requirement.)

(9) Hygiene facilities.

(a) If it is reasonably foreseeable that employees' skin may contact solutions containing 0.1 percent or greater MC (for example, through splashes, spills or improper work-practices), the employer shall provide conveniently located washing facilities capable of removing the MC, and shall ensure that affected employees use these facilities as needed.

(b) If it is reasonably foreseeable that an employee's eyes may contact solutions containing 0.1 percent or greater MC (for example through splashes, spills or improper work-practices), the employer shall provide appropriate eyewash facilities within the immediate work area for emergency use, and shall ensure that affected employees use those facilities when necessary.

(10) Medical surveillance.

(a) Affected employees. The employer shall make medical surveillance available for employees who are or may be exposed to MC as follows:

(i) At or above the action level on 30 or more days per year, or above the 8-hour TWA PEL or the STEL on 10 or more days per year;

(ii) Above the 8-TWA PEL or STEL for any time period where an employee has been identified by a physician or other licensed health care professional as being at risk from cardiac disease or from some other serious MC-related health condition and such employee requests inclusion in the medical surveillance program;

(iii) During an emergency.

(b) Costs. The employer shall provide all required medical surveillance at no cost to affected employees, without loss of pay and at a reasonable time and place.

(c) Medical personnel. The employer shall ensure that all medical surveillance procedures are performed by a physician or other licensed health care professional, as defined in subsection (2) of this section.

(d) Frequency of medical surveillance. The employer shall make medical surveillance available to each affected employee as follows:

(i) Initial surveillance. The employer shall provide initial medical surveillance under the schedule provided by subsection (14)(b)(iii) of this section, or before the time of initial assignment of the employee, whichever is later. The employer need not provide the initial surveillance if medical records show that an affected employee has been provided with medical surveillance that complies with this section within 12 months before December 1.

(ii) Periodic medical surveillance. The employer shall update the medical and work history for each affected employee annually. The employer shall provide periodic physical examinations, including appropriate laboratory surveillance, as follows:

(A) For employees 45 years of age or older, within 12 months of the initial surveillance or any subsequent medical surveillance; and

(B) For employees younger than 45 years of age, within 36 months of the initial surveillance or any subsequent medical surveillance.

(iii) Termination of employment or reassignment. When an employee leaves the employer's workplace, or is reassigned to an area where exposure to MC is consistently at or below the action level and STEL, medical surveillance shall be made available if six months or more have elapsed since the last medical surveillance.

(iv) Additional surveillance. The employer shall provide additional medical surveillance at frequencies other than those listed above when recommended in the written medical opinion. (For example, the physician or other licensed health care professional may determine an examination is warranted in less than 36 months for employees younger than 45 years of age based upon evaluation of the results of the annual medical and work history.)

(e) Content of medical surveillance.

(i) Medical and work history. The comprehensive medical and work history shall emphasize neurological symptoms, skin conditions, history of hematologic or liver disease, signs or symptoms suggestive of heart disease (angina, coronary artery disease), risk factors for cardiac disease, MC exposures, and work-practices and personal protective equipment used during such exposures.

(Note to subsection (10)(e)(i) of this section: See Appendix B of this section for an example of a medical and work history format that would satisfy this requirement.)

(ii) Physical examination. Where physical examinations are provided as required above, the physician or other licensed health care professional shall accord particular attention to the lungs, cardiovascular system (including blood pressure and pulse), liver, nervous system, and skin. The physician or other licensed health care professional shall determine the extent and nature of the physical examination based on the health status of the employee and analysis of the medical and work history.

(iii) Laboratory surveillance. The physician or other licensed health care professional shall determine the extent of any required laboratory surveillance based on the employee's observed health status and the medical and work history.

(Note to subsection (10)(e)(iii) of this section: See Appendix B of this section for information regarding medical tests. Laboratory surveillance may include before-and after-shift carboxyhemoglobin determinations, resting ECG, hematocrit, liver function tests and cholesterol levels.)

(iv) Other information or reports. The medical surveillance shall also include any other information or reports the physician or other licensed health care professional determines are necessary to assess the employee's health in relation to MC exposure.

(f) Content of emergency medical surveillance. The employer shall ensure that medical surveillance made available when an employee has been exposed to MC in emergency situations includes, at a minimum:

(i) Appropriate emergency treatment and decontamination of the exposed employee;

(ii) Comprehensive physical examination with special emphasis on the nervous system, cardiovascular system, lungs, liver and skin, including blood pressure and pulse;

(iii) Updated medical and work history, as appropriate for the medical condition of the employee; and

(iv) Laboratory surveillance, as indicated by the employee's health status.

(Note to subsection (10)(f)(iv) of this section: See Appendix B for examples of tests which may be appropriate.)

(g) Additional examinations and referrals. Where the physician or other licensed health care professional determines it is necessary, the scope of the medical examination shall be expanded and the appropriate additional medical surveillance, such as referrals for consultation or examination, shall be provided.

(h) Information provided to the physician or other licensed health care professional. The employer shall provide the following information to a physician or other licensed health care professional who is involved in the diagnosis of MC-induced health effects:

(i) A copy of this section including its applicable appendices;

(ii) A description of the affected employee's past, current and anticipated future duties as they relate to the employee's MC exposure;

(iii) The employee's former or current exposure levels or, for employees not yet occupationally exposed to MC, the employee's anticipated exposure levels and the frequency and exposure levels anticipated to be associated with emergencies;

(iv) A description of any personal protective equipment, such as respirators, used or to be used; and

(v) Information from previous employment-related medical surveillance of the affected employee which is not otherwise available to the physician or other licensed health care professional.

(i) Written medical opinions.

(i) For each physical examination required by this section, the employer shall ensure that the physician or other licensed health care professional provides to the employer and to the affected employee a written opinion regarding the results of that examination within 15 days of completion of the evaluation of medical and laboratory findings, but not more than 30 days after the examination. The written medical opinion shall be limited to the following information:

(A) The physician's or other licensed health care professional's opinion concerning whether exposure to MC may contribute to or aggravate the employee's existing cardiac, hepatic, neurological (including stroke) or dermal disease or whether the employee has any other medical conditions(s) that would place the employee's health at increased risk of material impairment from exposure to MC;

(B) Any recommended limitations upon the employee's exposure to MC, removal from MC exposure, or upon the employee's use of protective clothing or equipment and respirators;

(C) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician or other licensed health care professional that MC is a potential occupational carcinogen, of risk factors for heart disease, and the potential for exacerbation of underlying heart disease by exposure to MC through its metabolism to carbon monoxide; and

(D) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician or other licensed health care professional of the results of the medical examination and any medical conditions resulting from MC exposure which require further explanation or treatment.

The employer shall instruct the physician or other licensed health care professional not to reveal to the employer, orally or in the written opinion, any specific records, findings, and diagnoses that have no bearing on occupational exposure to MC.

(Note to subsection (10)(h)(ii) of this section: The written medical opinion may also include information and opinions generated to comply with other OSHA health standards.)

(j) Medical presumption. For purposes of this subsection (10), the physician or other licensed health care professional shall presume, unless medical evidence indicates to the contrary, that a medical condition is unlikely to require medical removal from MC exposure if the employee is not exposed to MC above the 8-hour TWA PEL. If the physician or other licensed health care professional recommends removal for an employee exposed below the 8-hour TWA PEL, the physician or other licensed health care professional shall cite specific medical evidence, sufficient to rebut the presumption that exposure below the 8-hour TWA PEL is unlikely to require removal, to support the recommendation. If such evidence is cited by the physician or other licensed health care professional, the employer must remove the employee. If such evidence is not cited by the physician or other licensed health care professional, the employer is not required to remove the employee.

(k) Medical removal protection (MRP).

(i) Temporary medical removal and return of an employee.

(A) Except as provided in (j) of this subsection, when a medical determination recommends removal because the employee's exposure to MC may contribute to or aggravate the employee's existing cardiac, hepatic, neurological (including stroke), or skin disease, the employer must provide medical removal protection benefits to the employee and either:

(I) Transfer the employee to comparable work where methylene chloride exposure is below the action level; or

(II) Remove the employee from MC exposure.

(B) If comparable work is not available and the employer is able to demonstrate that removal and the costs of extending MRP benefits to an additional employee, considering feasibility in relation to the size of the employer's business and the other requirements of this standard, make further reliance on MRP an inappropriate remedy, the employer may retain the additional employee in the existing job until transfer or removal becomes appropriate, provided:

(I) The employer ensures that the employee receives additional medical surveillance, including a physical examination at least every 60 days until transfer or removal occurs; and

(II) The employer or PLHCP informs the employee of the risk to the employee's health from continued MC exposure.

(C) The employer shall maintain in effect any job-related protective measures or limitations, other than removal, for as long as a medical determination recommends them to be necessary.

(ii) End of MRP benefits and return of the employee to former job status.

(A) The employer may cease providing MRP benefits at the earliest of the following:

(I) Six months;

(II) Return of the employee to the employee's former job status following receipt of a medical determination concluding that the employee's exposure to MC no longer will aggravate any cardiac, hepatic, neurological (including stroke), or dermal disease;

(III) Receipt of a medical determination concluding that the employee can never return to MC exposure.

(B) For the purposes of this subsection (10), the requirement that an employer return an employee to the employee's former job status is not intended to expand upon or restrict any rights an employee has or would have had, absent temporary medical removal, to a specific job classification or position under the terms of a collective bargaining agreement.

(l) Medical removal protection benefits.

(i) For purposes of this subsection (10), the term medical removal protection benefits means that, for each removal, an employer must maintain for up to six months the earnings, seniority, and other employment rights and benefits of the employee as though the employee had not been removed from MC exposure or transferred to a comparable job.

(ii) During the period of time that an employee is removed from exposure to MC, the employer may condition the provision of medical removal protection benefits upon the employee's participation in follow-up medical surveillance made available pursuant to this section.

(iii) If a removed employee files a workers' compensation claim for a MC-related disability, the employer shall continue the MRP benefits required by this section until either the claim is resolved or the 6-month period for payment of MRP benefits has passed, whichever occurs first. To the extent the employee is entitled to indemnity payments for earnings lost during the period of removal, the employer's obligation to provide medical removal protection benefits to the employee shall be reduced by the amount of such indemnity payments.

(iv) The employer's obligation to provide medical removal protection benefits to a removed employee shall be reduced to the extent that the employee receives compensation for earnings lost during the period of removal from either a publicly or an employer-funded compensation program, or receives income from employment with another employer made possible by virtue of the employee's removal.

(m) Voluntary removal or restriction of an employee. Where an employer, although not required by this section to do so, removes an employee from exposure to MC or otherwise places any limitation on an employee due to the effects of MC exposure on the employee's medical condition, the employer shall provide medical removal protection benefits to the employee equal to those required by (l) of this subsection.

(n) Multiple health care professional review mechanism.

(i) If the employer selects the initial physician or licensed health care professional (PLHCP) to conduct any medical examination or consultation provided to an employee under (k) of this subsection, the employer shall notify the employee of the right to seek a second medical opinion each time the employer provides the employee with a copy of the written opinion of that PLHCP.

(ii) If the employee does not agree with the opinion of the employer-selected PLHCP, notifies the employer of that fact, and takes steps to make an appointment with a second PLHCP within 15 days of receiving a copy of the written opinion of the initial PLHCP, the employer shall pay for the PLHCP chosen by the employee to perform at least the following:

(A) Review any findings, determinations or recommendations of the initial PLHCP; and

(B) Conduct such examinations, consultations, and laboratory tests as the PLHCP deems necessary to facilitate this review.

(iii) If the findings, determinations or recommendations of the second PLHCP differ from those of the initial PLHCP, then the employer and the employee shall instruct the two health care professionals to resolve the disagreement.

(iv) If the two health care professionals are unable to resolve their disagreement within 15 days, then those two health care professionals shall jointly designate a PLHCP who is a specialist in the field at issue. The employer shall pay for the specialist to perform at least the following:

(A) Review the findings, determinations, and recommendations of the first two PLHCPs; and

(B) Conduct such examinations, consultations, laboratory tests and discussions with the prior PLHCPs as the specialist deems necessary to resolve the disagreements of the prior health care professionals.

(v) The written opinion of the specialist shall be the definitive medical determination. The employer shall act consistent with the definitive medical determination, unless the employer and employee agree that the written opinion of one of the other two PLHCPs shall be the definitive medical determination.

(vi) The employer and the employee or authorized employee representative may agree upon the use of any expeditious alternate health care professional determination mechanism in lieu of the multiple health care professional review mechanism provided by this section so long as the alternate mechanism otherwise satisfies the requirements contained in this section.

(11) Hazard communication. The employer shall communicate the following hazards associated with MC on labels and in material safety data sheets in accordance with the requirements of the chemical hazard communication standard, WAC 296-800-170: cancer, cardiac effects (including elevation of carboxyhemoglobin), central nervous system effects, liver effects, and skin and eye irritation.

(12) Employee information and training.

(a) The employer shall provide information and training for each affected employee prior to or at the time of initial assignment to a job involving potential exposure to MC.

(b) The employer shall ensure that information and training is presented in a manner that is understandable to the employees.

(c) In addition to the information required under the chemical hazard communication standard at WAC 296-800-170:

(i) The employer shall inform each affected employee of the requirements of this section and information available in its appendices, as well as how to access or obtain a copy of it in the workplace;

(ii) Wherever an employee's exposure to airborne concentrations of MC exceeds or can reasonably be expected to exceed the action level, the employer shall inform each affected employee of the quantity, location, manner of use, release, and storage of MC and the specific operations in the workplace that could result in exposure to MC, particularly noting where exposures may be above the 8-hour TWA PEL or STEL;

(d) The employer shall train each affected employee as required under the chemical hazard communication standard at WAC 296-800-170, as appropriate.

(e) The employer shall re-train each affected employee as necessary to ensure that each employee exposed above the action level or the STEL maintains the requisite understanding of the principles of safe use and handling of MC in the workplace.

(f) Whenever there are workplace changes, such as modifications of tasks or procedures or the institution of new tasks or procedures, which increase employee exposure, and where those exposures exceed or can reasonably be expected to exceed the action level, the employer shall update the training as necessary to ensure that each affected employee has the requisite proficiency.

(g) An employer whose employees are exposed to MC at a multi-employer worksite shall notify the other employers with work operations at that site in accordance with the requirements of the chemical hazard communication standard, WAC 296-800-170, as appropriate.

(h) The employer shall provide to the director, upon request, all available materials relating to employee information and training.

(13) Recordkeeping.

(a) Objective data.

(i) Where an employer seeks to demonstrate that initial monitoring is unnecessary through reasonable reliance on objective data showing that any materials in the workplace containing MC will not release MC at levels which exceed the action level or the STEL under foreseeable conditions of exposure, the employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of the objective data relied upon in support of the exemption.

(ii) This record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The MC-containing material in question;

(B) The source of the objective data;

(C) The testing protocol, results of testing, and/or analysis of the material for the release of MC;

(D) A description of the operation exempted under subsection (4)(b)(i) of this section and how the data support the exemption; and

(E) Other data relevant to the operations, materials, processing, or employee exposures covered by the exemption.

(iii) The employer shall maintain this record for the duration of the employer's reliance upon such objective data.

(b) Exposure measurements.

(i) The employer shall establish and keep an accurate record of all measurements taken to monitor employee exposure to MC as prescribed in subsection (4) of this section.

(ii) Where the employer has 20 or more employees, this record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The date of measurement for each sample taken;

(B) The operation involving exposure to MC which is being monitored;

(C) Sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy;

(D) Number, duration, and results of samples taken;

(E) Type of personal protective equipment, such as respiratory protective devices, worn, if any; and

(F) Name, Social Security number, job classification and exposure of all of the employees represented by monitoring, indicating which employees were actually monitored.

(iii) Where the employer has fewer than 20 employees, the record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The date of measurement for each sample taken;

(B) Number, duration, and results of samples taken; and

(C) Name, Social Security number, job classification and exposure of all of the employees represented by monitoring, indicating which employees were actually monitored.

(iv) The employer shall maintain this record for at least thirty (30) years, in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.

(c) Medical surveillance.

(i) The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical surveillance under subsection (10) of this section.

(ii) The record shall include at least the following information:

(A) The name, Social Security number and description of the duties of the employee;

(B) Written medical opinions; and

(C) Any employee medical conditions related to exposure to MC.

(iii) The employer shall ensure that this record is maintained for the duration of employment plus thirty (30) years, in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.

(d) Availability. The employer, upon written request, shall make all records required to be maintained by this section available to the director for examination and copying in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.

(Note to subsection (13)(d)(i) of this section: All records required to be maintained by this section may be kept in the most administratively convenient form (for example, electronic or computer records would satisfy this requirement).)

(ii) The employer, upon request, shall make any employee exposure and objective data records required by this section available for examination and copying by affected employees, former employees, and designated representatives in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.

(iii) The employer, upon request, shall make employee medical records required to be kept by this section available for examination and copying by the subject employee and by anyone having the specific written consent of the subject employee in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.

(e) Transfer of records. The employer shall comply with the requirements concerning transfer of records set forth in chapter 296-802 WAC.

(14) Dates.

(a) Engineering controls required under subsection (6)(a) of this section shall be implemented according to the following schedule:

(i) For employers with fewer than 20 employees, no later than April 10, 2000.

(ii) For employers with fewer than 150 employees engaged in foam fabrication; for employers with fewer that 50 employees engaged in furniture refinishing, general aviation aircraft stripping, and product formulation; for employers with fewer than 50 employees using MC-based adhesives for boat building and repair, recreational vehicle manufacture, van conversion, and upholstering; for employers with fewer than 50 employees using MC in construction work for restoration and preservation of buildings, painting and paint removal, cabinet making and/or floor refinishing and resurfacing, no later than April 10, 2000.

(iii) For employers engaged in polyurethane foam manufacturing with 20 or more employees, no later than October 10, 1999.

(b) Use of respiratory protection whenever an employee's exposure to MC exceeds or can reasonably be expected to exceed the 8-hour TWA PEL, in accordance with subsection (3)(a), (5)(c), (6)(a) and (7)(a) of this section, shall be implemented according to the following schedule:

(i) For employers with fewer than 150 employees engaged in foam fabrication; for employers with fewer than 50 employees engaged in furniture refinishing, general aviation aircraft stripping, and product formulation; for employers with fewer than 50 employees using MC-based adhesives for boat building and repair, recreational vehicle manufacture, van conversion, and upholstering; for employers with fewer than 50 employees using MC in construction work for restoration and preservation of buildings, painting and paint removal, cabinet making and/or floor refinishing and resurfacing, no later than April 10, 2000.

(ii) For employers engaged in polyurethane foam manufacturing with 20 or more employees, no later than October 10, 1999.

(c) Notification of corrective action under subsection (4)(e)(ii) of this section, no later than 90 days before the compliance date applicable to such corrective action.

(d) Transitional dates. The exposure limits for MC specified in WAC 296-62-07515 Table 1, shall remain in effect until the start-up dates for the exposure limits specified in subsection (14) of this section, or if the exposure limits in this section are stayed or vacated.

(e) Unless otherwise specified in this subsection(14), all other requirements of this section shall be complied with immediately.

(15) Appendices. The information contained in the appendices does not, by itself, create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed or detract from any existing obligation.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 09-15-145 (Order 09-04), § 296-62-07470, filed 07/21/09, effective 09/01/09. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 07-05-072 (Order 06-39) § 296-62-07470, filed 02/20/07, effective 04/01/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 01-11-038 (Order 99-36), 296-62-07470, filed 05/09/01, effective 09/01/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 99-10 (Order 98-10) 296-62-07470, filed 05/04/99, effective 09/01/99.] Statutory Authority: Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, .050, .060, 97-18-062 (Order 97-08), 296-62-07470, filed 9/2/97, effective 12/1/97.]

WAC 296-62-07473 Appendix A. Substance Safety Data Sheet and Technical Guidelines for Methylene Chloride

I. Substance Identification

A. Substance: Methylene chloride (CH2Cl2).

B. Synonyms: MC, Dichloromethane (DCM); Methylene dichloride; Methylene bichloride; Methane dichloride; CAS: 75-09-2; NCI-C50102.

C. Physical data:

1. Molecular weight: 84.9.

2. Boiling point (760 mm Hg): 39.8 deg.C (104 deg.F).

3. Specific gravity (water = 1): 1.3.

4. Vapor density (air = 1 at boiling point): 2.9.

5. Vapor pressure at 20 deg. C (68 deg. F): 350 mm Hg.

6. Solubility in water, g/100 g water at 20 deg. C (68 deg. F) = 1.32.

7. Appearance and odor: colorless liquid with a chloroform-like odor.

D. Uses: MC is used as a solvent, especially where high volatility is required. It is a good solvent for oils, fats, waxes, resins, bitumen, rubber and cellulose acetate and is a useful paint stripper and degreaser. It is used in paint removers, in propellant mixtures for aerosol containers, as a solvent for plastics, as a degreasing agent, as an extracting agent in the pharmaceutical industry and as a blowing agent in polyurethane foams. Its solvent property is sometimes increased by mixing with methanol, petroleum naphtha or tetrachloroethylene.

E. Appearance and odor: MC is a clear colorless liquid with a chloroform-like odor. It is slightly soluble in water and completely miscible with most organic solvents.

F. Permissible exposure: Exposure may not exceed 25 parts MC per million parts of air (25 ppm) as an eight-hour time-weighted average (8-hour TWA PEL) or 125 parts of MC per million parts of air (125 ppm) averaged over a 15-minute period (STEL).

II. Health Hazard Data

A. MC can affect the body if it is inhaled or if the liquid comes in contact with the eyes or skin. It can also affect the body if it is swallowed.

B. Effects of overexposure:

1. Short-term Exposure: MC is an anesthetic. Inhaling the vapor may cause mental confusion, light- headedness, nausea, vomiting, and headache. Continued exposure may cause increased light-headedness, staggering, unconsciousness, and even death. High vapor concentrations may also cause irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Exposure to MC may make the symptoms of angina (chest pains) worse. Skin exposure to liquid MC may cause irritation. If liquid MC remains on the skin, it may cause skin burns. Splashes of the liquid into the eyes may cause irritation.

2. Long-term (chronic) exposure: The best evidence that MC causes cancer is from laboratory studies in which rats, mice and hamsters inhaled MC 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 2 years. MC exposure produced lung and liver tumors in mice and mammary tumors in rats. No carcinogenic effects of MC were found in hamsters. There are also some human epidemiological studies which show an association between occupational exposure to MC and increases in biliary (bile duct) cancer and a type of brain cancer. Other epidemiological studies have not observed a relationship between MC exposure and cancer. WISHA interprets these results to mean that there is suggestive (but not absolute) evidence that MC is a human carcinogen.

C. Reporting signs and symptoms: You should inform your employer if you develop any signs or symptoms and suspect that they are caused by exposure to MC.

D. Warning Properties:

1. Odor Threshold: Different authors have reported varying odor thresholds for MC. Kirk-Othmer and Sax both reported 25 to 50 ppm; Summer and May both reported 150 ppm; Spector reports 320 ppm. Patty, however, states that since one can become adapted to the odor, MC should not be considered to have adequate warning properties.

2. Eye Irritation Level: Kirk-Othmer reports that “MC vapor is seriously damaging to the eyes.” Sax agrees with Kirk-Othmer's statement. The ACGIH Documentation of TLVs states that irritation of the eyes has been observed in workers exposed to concentrations up to 5000 ppm.

3. Evaluation of Warning Properties: Since a wide range of MC odor thresholds are reported (25-320 ppm), and human adaptation to the odor occurs, MC is considered to be a material with poor warning properties.

III. Emergency First Aid Procedures

In the event of emergency, institute first aid procedures and send for first aid or medical assistance.

A. Eye and Skin Exposures: If there is a potential for liquid MC to come in contact with eye or skin, face shields and skin protective equipment must be provided and used. If liquid MC comes in contact with the eye, get medical attention. Contact lenses should not be worn when working with this chemical.

B. Breathing: If a person breathes in large amounts of MC, move the exposed person to fresh air at once. If breathing has stopped, perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Keep the affected person warm and at rest. Get medical attention as soon as possible.

C. Rescue: Move the affected person from the hazardous exposure immediately. If the exposed person has been overcome, notify someone else and put into effect the established emergency rescue procedures. Understand the facility's emergency rescue procedures and know the locations of rescue equipment before the need arises. Do not become a casualty yourself.

IV. Respirators, Protective Clothing, and Eye Protection

A. Respirators: Good industrial hygiene practices recommend that engineering controls be used to reduce environmental concentrations to the permissible exposure level. However, there are some exceptions where respirators may be used to control exposure. Respirators may be used when engineering and work-practice controls are not feasible, when such controls are in the process of being installed, or when these controls fail and need to be supplemented. Respirators may also be used for operations which require entry into tanks or closed vessels, and in emergency situations. If the use of respirators is necessary, the only respirators permitted are those that have been approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Supplied-air respirators are required because air-purifying respirators do not provide adequate respiratory protection against MC. In addition to respirator selection, a complete written respiratory protection program should be instituted which includes regular training, maintenance, inspection, cleaning, and evaluation. If you can smell MC while wearing a respirator, proceed immediately to fresh air. If you experience difficulty in breathing while wearing a respirator, tell your employer.

B. Protective Clothing: Employees must be provided with and required to use impervious clothing, gloves, face shields (eight-inch minimum), and other appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent repeated or prolonged skin contact with liquid MC or contact with vessels containing liquid MC. Any clothing which becomes wet with liquid MC should be removed immediately and not reworn until the employer has ensured that the protective clothing is fit for reuse. Contaminated protective clothing should be placed in a regulated area designated by the employer for removal of MC before the clothing is laundered or disposed of. Clothing and equipment should remain in the regulated area until all of the MC contamination has evaporated; clothing and equipment should then be laundered or disposed of as appropriate.

C. Eye Protection: Employees should be provided with and required to use splash-proof safety goggles where liquid MC may contact the eyes.

V. Housekeeping and Hygiene Facilities

For purposes of complying with WAC 296-24-120, 296-800-220 and 296-800-230, the following items should be emphasized:

A. The workplace should be kept clean, orderly, and in a sanitary condition. The employer should institute a leak and spill detection program for operations involving liquid MC in order to detect sources of fugitive MC emissions.

B. Emergency drench showers and eyewash facilities are recommended. These should be maintained in a sanitary condition. Suitable cleansing agents should also be provided to assure the effective removal of MC from the skin.

C. Because of the hazardous nature of MC, contaminated protective clothing should be placed in a regulated area designated by the employer for removal of MC before the clothing is laundered or disposed of.

VI. Precautions for Safe Use, Handling, and Storage

A. Fire and Explosion Hazards: MC has no flash point in a conventional closed tester, but it forms flammable vapor-air mixtures at approximately 100 deg.C (212 deg.F), or higher. It has a lower explosion limit of 12%, and an upper explosion limit of 19% in air. It has an autoignition temperature of 556.1 deg.C (1033 deg.F), and a boiling point of 39.8 deg.C (104 deg.F). It is heavier than water with a specific gravity of 1.3. It is slightly soluble in water.

B. Reactivity Hazards: Conditions contributing to the instability of MC are heat and moisture. Contact with strong oxidizers, caustics, and chemically active metals such as aluminum or magnesium powder, sodium and potassium may cause fires and explosions. Special precautions: Liquid MC will attack some forms of plastics, rubber, and coatings.

C. Toxicity: Liquid MC is painful and irritating if splashed in the eyes or if confined on the skin by gloves, clothing, or shoes. Vapors in high concentrations may cause narcosis and death. Prolonged exposure to vapors may cause cancer or exacerbate cardiac disease.

D. Storage: Protect against physical damage. Because of its corrosive properties, and its high vapor pressure, MC should be stored in plain, galvanized or lead lined, mild steel containers in a cool, dry, well ventilated area away from direct sunlight, heat source and acute fire hazards.

E. Piping Material: All piping and valves at the loading or unloading station should be of material that is resistant to MC and should be carefully inspected prior to connection to the transport vehicle and periodically during the operation.

F. Usual Shipping Containers: Glass bottles, 5- and 55-gallon steel drums, tank cars, and tank trucks.

Note: This section addresses MC exposure in marine terminal and longshore employment only where leaking or broken packages allow MC exposure that is not addressed through compliance with WAC 296-56.

G. Electrical Equipment: Electrical installations in Class I hazardous locations as defined in Article 500 of the National Electrical Code, should be installed according to Article 501 of the code; and electrical equipment should be suitable for use in atmospheres containing MC vapors. See Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code (NFPA No. 325M), Chemical Safety Data Sheet SD-86 (Manufacturing Chemists' Association, Inc.).

H. Fire Fighting: When involved in fire, MC emits highly toxic and irritating fumes such as phosgene, hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide. Wear breathing apparatus and use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Water spray may be used to flush spills away from exposures. Extinguishing media are dry chemical, carbon dioxide, foam. For purposes of compliance with WAC 296-24-956, locations classified as hazardous due to the presence of MC shall be Class I.

I. Spills and Leaks: Persons not wearing protective equipment and clothing should be restricted from areas of spills or leaks until cleanup has been completed. If MC has spilled or leaked, the following steps should be taken:

1. Remove all ignition sources.

2. Ventilate area of spill or leak.

3. Collect for reclamation or absorb in vermiculite, dry sand, earth, or a similar material.

J. Methods of Waste Disposal: Small spills should be absorbed onto sand and taken to a safe area for atmospheric evaporation. Incineration is the preferred method for disposal of large quantities by mixing with a combustible solvent and spraying into an incinerator equipped with acid scrubbers to remove hydrogen chloride gases formed. Complete combustion will convert carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide. Care should be taken for the presence of phosgene.

K. You should not keep food, beverage, or smoking materials, or eat or smoke in regulated areas where MC concentrations are above the permissible exposure limits.

L. Portable heating units should not be used in confined areas where MC is used.

M. Ask your supervisor where MC is used in your work area and for any additional plant safety and health rules.

VII. Medical Requirements

Your employer is required to offer you the opportunity to participate in a medical surveillance program if you are exposed to MC at concentrations at or above the action level (12.5 ppm 8-hour TWA) for more than 30 days a year or at concentrations exceeding the PELs (25 ppm 8-hour TWA or 125 ppm 15-minute STEL) for more than 10 days a year. If you are exposed to MC at concentrations over either of the PELs, your employer will also be required to have a physician or other licensed health care professional ensure that you are able to wear the respirator that you are assigned. Your employer must provide all medical examinations relating to your MC exposure at a reasonable time and place and at no cost to you.

VIII. Monitoring and Measurement Procedures

A. Exposure above the Permissible Exposure Limit:

1. Eight-hour exposure evaluation: Measurements taken for the purpose of determining employee exposure under this section are best taken with consecutive samples covering the full shift. Air samples must be taken in the employee's breathing zone.

2. Monitoring techniques: The sampling and analysis under this section may be performed by collection of the MC vapor on two charcoal adsorption tubes in series or other composition adsorption tubes, with subsequent chemical analysis. Sampling and analysis may also be performed by instruments such as real-time continuous monitoring systems, portable direct reading instruments, or passive dosimeters as long as measurements taken using these methods accurately evaluate the concentration of MC in employees' breathing zones. OSHA method 80 is an example of a validated method of sampling and analysis of MC. Copies of this method are available from OSHA or can be downloaded from the Internet at http://www.osha.gov. The employer has the obligation of selecting a monitoring method which meets the accuracy and precision requirements of the standard under his or her unique field conditions. The standard requires that the method of monitoring must be accurate, to a 95 percent confidence level, to plus or minus 25 percent for concentrations of MC at or above 25 ppm, and to plus or minus 35 percent for concentrations at or below 25 ppm. In addition to OSHA method 80, there are numerous other methods available for monitoring for MC in the workplace.

Since many of the duties relating to employee exposure are dependent on the results of measurement procedures, employers must assure that the evaluation of employee exposure is performed by a technically qualified person.

IX. Observation of Monitoring

Your employer is required to perform measurements that are representative of your exposure to MC and you or your designated representative are entitled to observe the monitoring procedure. You are entitled to observe the steps taken in the measurement procedure, and to record the results obtained. When the monitoring procedure is taking place in an area where respirators or personal protective clothing and equipment are required to be worn, you or your representative must also be provided with, and must wear, protective clothing and equipment.

Access To Information

A. Your employer is required to inform you of the information contained in this Appendix. In addition, your employer must instruct you in the proper work-practices for using MC, emergency procedures, and the correct use of protective equipment.

B. Your employer is required to determine whether you are being exposed to MC. You or your representative has the right to observe employee measurements and to record the results obtained. Your employer is required to inform you of your exposure. If your employer determines that you are being over exposed, he or she is required to inform you of the actions which are being taken to reduce your exposure to within permissible exposure limits.

C. Your employer is required to keep records of your exposures and medical examinations. These records must be kept by the employer for at least thirty (30) years.

D. Your employer is required to release your exposure and medical records to you or your representative upon your request.

E. Your employer is required to provide labels and material safety data sheets (MSDS) for all materials, mixtures or solutions composed of greater than 0.1 percent MC. An example of a label that would satisfy these requirements would be:

Danger Contains Methylene Chloride
Potential Cancer Hazard

May worsen heart disease because methylene chloride is converted to carbon monoxide in the body.

May cause dizziness, headache, irritation of the throat and lungs, loss of consciousness and death at high concentrations (for example, if used in a poorly ventilated room).

Avoid Skin Contact. Contact with liquid causes skin and eye irritation.

X. Common Operations and Controls

The following list includes some common operations in which exposure to MC may occur and control methods which may be effective in each case:

Operations

Controls

Use as solvent in paint and varnish removers cold cleaning and ultrasonic cleaning, and as a solvent in furniture stripping.

General dilution ventilation; local; manufacture of aerosols; cold cleaning exhaust ventilation; personal protective equipment; substitution.

Use as solvent in vapor degreasing.

Process enclosure; local exhaust ventilation, chilling coils; substitution

Use as a secondary refrigerant in air. Scientific testing.

General dilution ventilation; local conditioning and exhaust ventilation; personal protective equipment.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 01-11-038 (Order 99-36), 296-62-07473, filed 05/09/01, effective 09/01/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, .050, .060,97-18-062 (Order 97-08), 296-62-07473, filed 9/2/97, effective 12/1/97.]

WAC 296-62-07475 Appendix B. Medical Surveillance for Methylene Chloride

I. Primary Route of Entry Inhalation.

II. Toxicology.

Methylene Chloride (MC) is primarily an inhalation hazard. The principal acute hazardous effects are the depressant action on the central nervous system, possible cardiac toxicity and possible liver toxicity. The range of CNS effects are from decreased eye/hand coordination and decreased performance in vigilance tasks to narcosis and even death of individuals exposed at very high doses. Cardiac toxicity is due to the metabolism of MC to carbon monoxide, and the effects of carbon monoxide on heart tissue. Carbon monoxide displaces oxygen in the blood, decreases the oxygen available to heart tissue, increasing the risk of damage to the heart, which may result in heart attacks in susceptible individuals. Susceptible individuals include persons with heart disease and those with risk factors for heart disease. Elevated liver enzymes and irritation to the respiratory passages and eyes have also been reported for both humans and experimental animals exposed to MC vapors.

MC is metabolized to carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide via two separate pathways. Through the first pathway, MC is metabolized to carbon monoxide as an end-product via the P-450 mixed function oxidase pathway located in the microsomal fraction of the cell. This biotransformation of MC to carbon monoxide occurs through the process of microsomal oxidative dechlorination which takes place primarily in the liver. The amount of conversion to carbon monoxide is significant as measured by the concentration of carboxyhemoglobin, up to 12% measured in the blood following occupational exposure of up to 610 ppm.

Through the second pathway, MC is metabolized to carbon dioxide as an end product (with formaldehyde and formic acid as metabolic intermediates) via the glutathione dependent enzyme found in the cytosolic fraction of the liver cell. Metabolites along this pathway are believed to be associated with the carcinogenic activity of MC.

MC has been tested for carcinogenicity in several laboratory rodents. These rodent studies indicate that there is clear evidence that MC is carcinogenic to male and female mice and female rats. Based on epidemiologic studies, OSHA has concluded that there is suggestive evidence of increased cancer risk in MC-related worker populations. The epidemiological evidence is consistent with the finding of excess cancer in the experimental animal studies. NIOSH regards MC as a potential occupational carcinogen and the International Agency for Research Cancer (IARC) classifies MC as an animal carcinogen. OSHA considers MC as a suspected human carcinogen.

III. Medical Signs and Symptoms of Acute Exposure

Skin exposure to liquid MC may cause irritation or skin burns. Liquid MC can also be irritating to the eyes. MC is also absorbed through the skin and may contribute to the MC exposure by inhalation. At high concentrations in air, MC may cause nausea, vomiting, light- headedness, numbness of the extremities, changes in blood enzyme levels, and breathing problems, leading to bronchitis and pulmonary edema, unconsciousness and even death.

At lower concentrations in air, MC may cause irritation to the skin, eye, and respiratory tract and occasionally headache and nausea. Perhaps the greatest problem from exposure to low concentrations of MC is the CNS effects on coordination and alertness that may cause unsafe operations of machinery and equipment, leading to self-injury or accidents. Low levels and short duration exposures do not seem to produce permanent disability, but chronic exposures to MC have been demonstrated to produce liver toxicity in animals, and therefore, the evidence is suggestive for liver toxicity in humans after chronic exposure. Chronic exposure to MC may also cause cancer.

IV. Surveillance and Preventive Considerations

As discussed above, MC is classified as a suspect or potential human carcinogen. It is a central nervous system (CNS) depressant and a skin, eye and respiratory tract irritant. At extremely high concentrations, MC has caused liver damage in animals. MC principally affects the CNS, where it acts as a narcotic. The observation of the symptoms characteristic of CNS depression, along with a physical examination, provides the best detection of early neurological disorders. Since exposure to MC also increases the carboxyhemoglobin level in the blood, ambient carbon monoxide levels would have an additive effect on that carboxyhemoglobin level. Based on such information, a periodic post- shift carboxyhemoglobin test as an index of the presence of carbon monoxide in the blood is recommended, but not required, for medical surveillance.

Based on the animal evidence and three epidemiologic studies previously mentioned, OSHA concludes that MC is a suspect human carcinogen. The medical surveillance program is designed to observe exposed workers on a regular basis. While the medical surveillance program cannot detect MC-induced cancer at a preneoplastic stage, OSHA anticipates that, as in the past, early detection and treatments of cancers leading to enhanced survival rates will continue to evolve.

A. Medical and Occupational History:

The medical and occupational work history plays an important role in the initial evaluation of workers exposed to MC. It is therefore extremely important for the examining physician or other licensed health care professional to evaluate the MC-exposed worker carefully and completely and to focus the examination on MC's potentially associated health hazards. The medical evaluation must include an annual detailed work and medical history with special emphasis on cardiac history and neurological symptoms.

An important goal of the medical history is to elicit information from the worker regarding potential signs or symptoms associated with increased levels of carboxyhemoglobin due to the presence of carbon monoxide in the blood. Physicians or other licensed health care professionals should ensure that the smoking history of all MC exposed employees is known. Exposure to MC may cause a significant increase in carboxyhemoglobin level in all exposed persons. However, smokers as well as workers with anemia or heart disease and those concurrently exposed to carbon monoxide are at especially high risk of toxic effects because of an already reduced oxygen carrying capacity of the blood.

A comprehensive or interim medical and work history should also include occurrence of headache, dizziness, fatigue, chest pain, shortness of breath, pain in the limbs, and irritation of the skin and eyes. In addition, it is important for the physician or other licensed health care professional to become familiar with the operating conditions in which exposure to MC is likely to occur. The physician or other licensed health care professional also must become familiar with the signs and symptoms that may indicate that a worker is receiving otherwise unrecognized and exceptionally high exposure levels of MC.

An example of a medical and work history that would satisfy the requirement for a comprehensive or interim work history is represented by the following:

The following is a list of recommended questions and issues for the self- administered questionnaire for methylene chloride exposure. 


Questionnaire For Methylene Chloride Exposure

I. Demographic Information

1. Name

2. Social Security Number

3. Date

4. Date of Birth

5. Age

6. Present occupation

7. Sex

8. Race

II. Occupational History

1. Have you ever worked with methylene chloride, dichloromethane, methylene dichloride, or CH2Cl2 (all are different names for the same chemical)? Please list which on the occupational history form if you have not already.

2. If you have worked in any of the following industries and have not listed them on the occupational history form, please do so.

Furniture stripping

Polyurethane foam manufacturing

Chemical manufacturing or formulation

Pharmaceutical manufacturing

Any industry in which you used solvents to clean and degrease equipment or parts

Construction, especially painting and refinishing

Aerosol manufacturing

Any industry in which you used aerosol adhesives

3. If you have not listed hobbies or household projects on the occupational history form, especially furniture refinishing, spray painting, or paint stripping, please do so.

III. Medical History

A. General

1. Do you consider yourself to be in good health? If no, state reason(s).

2. Do you or have you ever had:

a. Persistent thirst

b. Frequent urination (three times or more at night)

c. Dermatitis or irritated skin

d. Nonhealing wounds

3. What prescription or nonprescription medications do you take, and for what reasons?

4. Are you allergic to any medications, and what type of reaction do you have?

B. Respiratory

1. Do you have or have you ever had any chest illnesses or diseases? Explain.

2. Do you have or have you ever had any of the following:

a. Asthma

b. Wheezing

c. Shortness of breath

3. Have you ever had an abnormal chest X-ray? If so, when, where, and what were the findings?

4. Have you ever had difficulty using a respirator or breathing apparatus? Explain.

5. Do any chest or lung diseases run in your family? Explain.

6. Have you ever smoked cigarettes, cigars, or a pipe? Age started:

7. Do you now smoke?

8. If you have stopped smoking completely, how old were you when you stopped?

9. On the average of the entire time you smoked, how many packs of cigarettes, cigars, or bowls of tobacco did you smoke per day?

C. Cardiovascular

1. Have you ever been diagnosed with any of the following:

Which of the following apply to you now or did apply to you at some time in the past, even if the problem is controlled by medication? Please explain any yes answers (i.e., when problem was diagnosed, length of time on medication).

a. High cholesterol or triglyceride level

b. Hypertension (high blood pressure)

c. Diabetes

d. Family history of heart attack, stroke, or blocked arteries

2. Have you ever had chest pain? If so, answer the next five questions.

a. What was the quality of the pain (i.e., crushing, stabbing, squeezing)?

b. Did the pain go anywhere (i.e., into jaw, left arm)?

c. What brought the pain out?

d. How long did it last?

e. What made the pain go away?

3. Have you ever had heart disease, a heart attack, stroke, aneurysm, or blocked arteries anywhere in your body? Explain (when, treatment).

4. Have you ever had bypass surgery for blocked arteries in your heart or anywhere else? Explain.

5. Have you ever had any other procedures done to open up a blocked artery (balloon angioplasty, carotid endarterectomy, clot-dissolving drug)?

6. Do you have or have you ever had (explain each):

a. Heart murmur

b. Irregular heartbeat

c. Shortness of breath while lying flat

d. Congestive heart failure

e. Ankle swelling

f. Recurrent pain anywhere below the waist while walking

7. Have you ever had an electrocardiogram (EKG)? When?

8. Have you ever had an abnormal EKG? If so, when, where, and what were the findings?

9. Do any heart diseases, high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol, or high triglycerides run in your family? Explain.

D. Hepatobiliary and Pancreas

1. Do you now or have you ever drunk alcoholic beverages? Age started: Age stopped: .

2. Average numbers per week:

a. Beers: , ounces in usual container:

b. Glasses of wine: , ounces per glass:

c. Drinks: , ounces in usual container:

3. Do you have or have you ever had (explain each):

a. Hepatitis (infectious, autoimmune, drug-induced, or chemical)

b. Jaundice

c. Elevated liver enzymes or elevated bilirubin

d. Liver disease or cancer

E. Central Nervous System

1. Do you or have you ever had (explain each):

a. Headache

b. Dizziness

c. Fainting

d. Loss of consciousness

e. Garbled speech

f. Lack of balance

g. Mental/psychiatric illness

h. Forgetfulness

F. Hematologic

1. Do you have, or have you ever had (explain each):

a. Anemia

b. Sickle cell disease or trait

c. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

d. Bleeding tendency disorder

2. If not already mentioned previously, have you ever had a reaction to sulfa drugs or to drugs used to prevent or treat malaria? What was the drug? Describe the reaction.

B. Physical Examination

The complete physical examination, when coupled with the medical and occupational history, assists the physician or other licensed health care professional in detecting pre-existing conditions that might place the employee at increased risk, and establishes a baseline for future health monitoring. These examinations should include:

1. Clinical impressions of the nervous system, cardiovascular function and pulmonary function, with additional tests conducted where indicated or determined by the examining physician or other licensed health care professional to be necessary.

2. An evaluation of the advisability of the worker using a respirator, because the use of certain respirators places an additional burden on the cardiopulmonary system. It is necessary for the attending physician or other licensed health care professional to evaluate the cardiopulmonary function of these workers, in order to inform the employer in a written medical opinion of the worker's ability or fitness to work in an area requiring the use of certain types of respiratory protective equipment. The presence of facial hair or scars that might interfere with the worker's ability to wear certain types of respirators should also be noted during the examination and in the written medical opinion.

Because of the importance of lung function to workers required to wear certain types of respirators to protect themselves from MC exposure, these workers must receive an assessment of pulmonary function before they begin to wear a negative pressure respirator and at least annually thereafter.

The recommended pulmonary function tests include measurement of the employee's forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1), as well as calculation of the ratios of FEV1 to FVC, and the ratios of measured FVC and measured FEV1 to expected respective values corrected for variation due to age, sex, race, and height. Pulmonary function evaluation must be conducted by a physician or other licensed health care professional experienced in pulmonary function tests.

The following is a summary of the elements of a physical exam which would fulfill the requirements under the MC standard:

Physical Exam

I. Skin and appendages

1. Irritated or broken skin

2. Jaundice

3. Clubbing cyanosis, edema

4. Capillary refill time

5. Pallor

II. Head

1. Facial deformities

2. Scars

3. Hair growth

III. Eyes

1. Scleral icterus

2. Corneal arcus

3. Pupillary size and response

4. Fundoscopic exam

IV. Chest

1. Standard exam

V. Heart

1. Standard exam

2 Jugular vein distension

3. Peripheral pulses

VI. Abdomen

1. Liver span

VII. Nervous System

1. Complete standard neurologic exam

VIII. Laboratory

1. Hemoglobin and hematocrit

2. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, SGPT)

3. Post-shift carboxyhemoglobin

I. Studies

1. Pulmonary function testing

2. Electrocardiogram

An evaluation of the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood of employees (for example by measured red blood cell volume) is considered useful, especially for workers acutely exposed to MC. It is also recommended, but not required, that end of shift carboxyhemoglobin levels be determined periodically, and any level above 3% for nonsmokers and above 10% for smokers should prompt an investigation of the worker and his workplace. This test is recommended because MC is metabolized to CO, which combines strongly with hemoglobin, resulting in a reduced capacity of the blood to transport oxygen in the body. This is of particular concern for cigarette smokers because they already have a diminished hemoglobin capacity due to the presence of CO in cigarette smoke.

C. Additional Examinations and Referrals

1. Examination by a Specialist

When a worker examination reveals unexplained symptoms or signs (i.e. in the physical examination or in the laboratory tests), follow-up medical examinations are necessary to assure that MC exposure is not adversely affecting the worker's health. When the examining physician or other licensed health care professional finds it necessary, additional tests should be included to determine the nature of the medical problem and the underlying cause. Where relevant, the worker should be sent to a specialist for further testing and treatment as deemed necessary. The final rule requires additional investigations to be covered and it also permits physicians or other licensed health care professionals to add appropriate or necessary tests to improve the diagnosis of disease should such tests become available in the future.

2. Emergencies

The examination of workers exposed to MC in an emergency should be directed at the organ systems most likely to be affected. If the worker has received a severe acute exposure, hospitalization may be required to assure proper medical intervention. It is not possible to precisely define “severe,” but the physician or other licensed health care professional's judgment should not merely rest on hospitalization. If the worker has suffered significant conjunctival, oral, or nasal irritation, respiratory distress, or discomfort, the physician or other licensed health care professional should instigate appropriate follow-up procedures. These include attention to the eyes, lungs and the neurological system. The frequency of follow-up examinations should be determined by the attending physician or other licensed health care professional. This testing permits the early identification essential to proper medical management of such workers.

D. Employer Obligations

The employer is required to provide the responsible physician or other licensed health care professional and any specialists involved in a diagnosis with the following information: a copy of the MC standard including relevant appendices, a description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to his or her exposure to MC; an estimate of the employee's exposure including duration (e.g., 15hr/wk, three 8-hour shifts/wk, full time); a description of any personal protective equipment used by the employee, including respirators; and the results of any previous medical determinations for the affected employee related to MC exposure to the extent that this information is within the employer's control.

E. Physicians' or Other Licensed Health Care Professionals' Obligations

The standard requires the employer to ensure that the physician or other licensed health care professional provides a written statement to the employee and the employer. This statement should contain the physician's or licensed health care professional's opinion as to whether the employee has any medical condition placing him or her at increased risk of impaired health from exposure to MC or use of respirators, as appropriate. The physician or other licensed health care professional should also state his or her opinion regarding any restrictions that should be placed on the employee's exposure to MC or upon the use of protective clothing or equipment such as respirators. If the employee wears a respirator as a result of his or her exposure to MC, the physician or other licensed health care professional's opinion should also contain a statement regarding the suitability of the employee to wear the type of respirator assigned.

Furthermore, the employee should be informed by the physician or other licensed health care professional about the cancer risk of MC and about risk factors for heart disease, and the potential for exacerbation of underlying heart disease by exposure to MC through its metabolism to carbon monoxide. Finally, the physician or other licensed health care professional should inform the employer that the employee has been told the results of the medical examination and of any medical conditions which require further explanation or treatment. This written opinion must not contain any information on specific findings or diagnosis unrelated to employee's occupational exposures.

The purpose in requiring the examining physician or other licensed health care professional to supply the employer with a written opinion is to provide the employer with a medical basis to assist the employer in placing employees initially, in assuring that their health is not being impaired by exposure to MC, and to assess the employee's ability to use any required protective equipment.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, .050, .060, 97-08-062 (Order 97-08), 296-62-07475, filed 9/2/97, effective 12/1/97.]

WAC 296-62-07477 Appendix C. Questions and answers--methylene chloride in furniture stripping.

(Adapted from NIOSH Pubication No. 93-133)

Introduction

This appendix answers commonly asked questions about the hazards from exposure to methylene chloride. It also describes approaches to controlling methylene chloride exposure during the most common furniture stripping processes. Although these approaches were developed and field tested by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, each setting requires custom installation because of the different air flow interferences at each site.

1. What is the Stripping Solution Base?

The most common active ingredient in paint removers is a chemical called methylene chloride. Methylene chloride is present in the paint remover to penetrate, blister, and finally lift the old finish. Other chemicals in paint removers work to accelerate the stripping process, to retard evaporation, and to act as thickening agents. These other ingredients may include: methanol, toluene, acetone, or paraffin.1

2. Is Methylene Chloride Bad for Me?

Exposure to methylene chloride may cause short-term health effects or long-term health effects.

Short-Term (Acute) Health Effects

Exposure to high levels of paint removers over short periods of time can cause irritation to the skin, eyes, mucous membranes, and respiratory tracts. Other symptoms of high exposure are dizziness, headache, and lack of coordination. The occurrence of any of these symptoms indicates that you are being exposed to high levels of methylene chloride. At the onset of any of these symptoms, you should leave the work area, get some fresh air, and determine why the levels were high.

A portion of inhaled methylene chloride is converted by the body to carbon monoxide, which can lower the blood's ability to carry oxygen. When the solvent is used properly, however, the levels of carbon monoxide should not be hazardous. Individuals with cardiovascular or pulmonary health problems should check with their physician before using the paint stripper. Individuals experiencing severe symptoms such as shortness of breath or chest pains should obtain proper medical care immediately.1

Long-Term (Chronic) Health Effects

Methylene chloride has been shown to cause cancer in certain laboratory animal tests. The available human studies do not provide the necessary information to determine whether methylene chloride causes cancer in humans. However, as a result of the animal studies, methylene chloride is considered a potential occupational carcinogen. There is also considerable indirect evidence to suggest that workers exposed to methylene chloride may be at an increased risk of developing ischemic heart disease. Therefore, it is prudent to minimize exposure to solvent vapors.3

3. What does the Methylene Chloride Standard Require?

On January 10, 1997, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration published a new regulation for methylene chloride. The standard establishes an eight-hour time-weighted average exposure limit of 25 parts per million (ppm), as well as a short-term exposure limit of 125 ppm determined from a 15 minute sampling period. That is a reduction from the current WISHA limit of 100 ppm. The standard also sets a 12.5 ppm action level (a level that would trigger periodic exposure monitoring and medical surveillance provisions).2 WISHA adopted an identical standard on [date].

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommends that methylene chloride be regarded as a “potential occupational carcinogen.” NIOSH further recommends that occupational exposure to methylene chloride be controlled to the lowest feasible limit. This recommendation was based on the observation of cancers and tumors in both rats and mice exposed to methylene chloride in air.5

4. How Can I Be Exposed to Methylene Chloride while Stripping Furniture?

Methylene chloride can be inhaled when vapors are in the air. Inhalation of the methylene chloride vapors is generally the most important source of exposure. Methylene chloride evaporates quicker than most chemicals. The odor threshold of methylene chloride is 300 ppm.6 Therefore, once you smell methylene chloride, you are being over-exposed. Pouring, moving, or stirring the chemical will increase the rate of evaporation.

Methylene chloride can be absorbed through the skin either by directly touching the chemical or through your gloves. Methylene chloride can be swallowed if it gets on your hands, clothes, or beard, or if food or drinks become contaminated.

5. How Can Breathing Exposures be Reduced?

Install a Local Exhaust Ventilation System

Local exhaust ventilation can be used to control exposures. Local exhaust ventilation systems capture contaminated air from the source before it spreads into the workers' breathing zone.7 If engineering controls are not effective, only a self-contained breathing apparatus equipped with a full face piece and operated in a positive-pressure mode or a supplied-air respirator affords the level of protection. Air-purifying respirators such as gas masks with organic vapor canisters can only be used for escape situations.8 These gas masks are not suitable for normal work situations because methylene chloride is poorly absorbed by the canister filtering material.

A local exhaust system consists of the following: a hood, a fan, ductwork, and a replacement air system.9,10,11 Two processes are commonly used in furniture stripping: flow-over and dip tanks. For flow-over systems there are two common local exhaust controls for methylene chloride - a slot hood and a down draft hood. A slot hood of different design is most often used for dip tanks. (See Figures 1, 2, and 3.)

The hood is made of sheet metal and connected to the tank. All designs require a centrifugal fan to exhaust the fumes, ductwork connecting the hood and the fan, and a replacement air system to bring conditioned air into the building to replace the air exhausted.

In constructing or designing a slot or down draft hood, use the following data:

 

FIGURE 1 -- SLOT HOOD

FIGURE 2 -- DOWNDRAFT HOOD

 

FIGURE 3 -- SLOT HOOD FOR DIP TANK

Safe Work-practices

Workers can lower exposures by decreasing their access to the methylene chloride.12

1) Turn on dip tank control system several minutes before entering the stripping area.

2) Avoid unnecessary transferring or moving of the stripping solution.

3) Keep face out of the air stream between the solution-covered furniture and the exhaust system.

4) Keep face out of vapor zone above the stripping solution and the dip tank.

5) Retrieve dropped items with a long handled tool.

6) Keep the solution-recycling system off when not in use. Cover reservoir for recycling system.

7) Cover dip tank when not in use.

8) Provide adequate ventilation for rinse area.

How Can Skin Exposures Be Reduced?

Skin exposures can be reduced by wearing gloves whenever you are in contact with the stripping solution.13

1) Two gloves should be worn. The inner glove should be made from polyethylene/ethylene vinyl alcohol (e.g., Silver Shield, or 4H). This material, however, does not provide good physical resistance against tears, so an outer glove made from nitrile or neoprene should be worn.

2) Shoulder-length gloves will be more protective.

3) Change gloves before the break-through time occurs. Rotate several pairs of gloves throughout the day. Let the gloves dry in a warm well ventilated area at least over night before reuse.

4) Keep gloves clean by rinsing often. Keep gloves in good condition. Inspect the gloves before use for pin-holes, cracks, thin spots, and stiffer than normal or sticky surfaces.

5) Wear a face shield or goggles to protect face and eyes.

6) What Other Problems Can Occur?

Stripping Solution Temperature

Most manufacturers of stripping solution recommend controlling the solution to a temperature of 70F. This temperature is required for the wax in the solution to form a vapor barrier on top of the solution to keep the solution from evaporating too quickly. If the temperature is too high, the wax will not form the vapor barrier. If it is too cold, the wax will solidify and separate from the solvent causing increased evaporation. Use a belt heater to heat the solution to the correct temperature. Call your solution manufacturer for the correct temperature for your solution.14

Make-Up Air

Air will enter a building in an amount to equal the amount of air exhausted whether or not provision is made for this replacement. If a local exhaust system is added a make-up or replacement air system must be added to replace the air removed. Without a replacement air system, air will enter the building through cracks causing uncontrollable eddy currents. If the building perimeter is tightly sealed, it will prevent the air from entering and severely decrease the amount exhausted from the ventilation system. This will cause the building to be under negative pressure and decrease the performance of the exhaust system.15

Dilution Ventilation

With general or dilution ventilation, uncontaminated air is moved through the workroom by means of fans or open windows, which dilutes the pollutants in the air. Dilution ventilation does not provide effective protection to other workers and does not confine the methylene chloride vapors to one area.16

Phosgene Poisoning from Use of Kerosene Heaters

Do not use kerosene heaters or other open flame heaters while stripping furniture. Use of kerosene heaters in connection with methylene chloride can create lethal or dangerous concentrations of phosgene. Methylene chloride vapor is mixed with the air used for the combustion of kerosene in kerosene stoves. The vapor thus passes through the flames, coming into close contact with carbon monoxide at high temperatures. Any chlorine formed by decomposition may, under these conditions, react with carbon monoxide and form phosgene.17

REFERENCES

1Halogenated Solvents Industry Alliance and Consumer Product Safety Commission [1990]. Stripping Paint from Wood (Pamphlet for consumers on how to strip furniture and precautions to take). Washington DC: Consumer Product Safety Commission.

2Ibid.

3NIOSH [1992]. NIOSH Testimony on Occupational Safety and Health Administration's proposed rule on occupational exposure to methylene chloride, September 21, 1992, OSHA Docket No. H-71. NIOSH policy statements. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

456 Fed. Reg. 57036 [1991]. Occupational Safety and Health Administration: Proposed rule on occupational exposure to methylene chloride.

5NIOSH [1992].

6Kirk, R.E. and P.F. Othmer, Eds. [1978]. Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 3rd Ed., Vol. 5:690. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

7ACGIH [1988]. Industrial Ventilation: A Manual of Recommended Practice. 20th Ed. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.

8NIOSH [1992].

9Fairfield, C.L. and A.A. Beasley [1991]. In-depth Survey Report at the Association for Retarded Citizens, Meadowlands, PA. The Control of Methylene Chloride During Furniture Stripping. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

10Fairfield, C.L. [1991]. In-depth Survey Report at the J.M. Murray Center, Cortland, NY. The Control of Methylene Chloride During Furniture Stripping. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Publish Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

11Hall, R.M., K.F. Martinez, and P.A. Jensen [1992]. In-depth Survey Report at Tri-County Furniture Stripping and Refinishing, Cincinnati, OH. The Control of Methylene Chloride During Furniture Stripping. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

12Fairfield, C.L. and A.A. Beasley [1991]. In-depth Survey Report at the Association for Retarded Citizens, Meadowlands, PA. The Control of Methylene Chloride During Furniture Stripping. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

13Roder, M. [1991]. Memorandum of March 11, 1991 from Michael Roder of the Division of Safety Research to Cheryl L. Fairfield of the Division of Physical Sciences and Engineering, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

14Kwick Kleen Industrial Solvents, Inc., [1981]. Operations Manual, Kwick Kleen Industrial Solvents, Inc., Vincennes, IN.

15ACGIH [1988].

16Ibid.

17Gerritsen, W.B. and C.H. Buschmann [1960]. Phosgene Poisoning Caused by the Use of Chemical Paint Removers containing Methylene Chloride in III-Ventilated Rooms Heated by Kerosene Stoves. British Journal of Industrial Medicine 17:187.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, .050, .060, 97-18-062 (Order 97-08), 296-62-07477, filed 9/2/97, effective 12/1/97.]

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