Respirators

Chapter 296-842, WAC

Effective Date: 12/01/09

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Respirator Selection

 

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Select and provide appropriate respirators

Rules

WAC 296-842-13005

Select and provide appropriate respirators

Important:

Exemption

Exemption:

This section does NOT apply to respirator use that is voluntary. See WAC 296-842-11005 for voluntary use program requirements

 

See chapter 296-841 WAC, Airborne Contaminants, for:

  • Hazard evaluation requirements. Evaluation results are necessary for respirator selection.
  • References to substance-specific rules that may also apply to you and have additional respirator selection requirements. These references are found in the permissible exposure limit (PEL) table.

A respirator shall be provided to each employee when such equipment is necessary to protect the health of the employee.

Helpful Tool

Helpful Tool:

Information about Respirator Selection and Classification

This document provides guidance about respirator selection and classification. You can find a copy in the Resources section of this chapter.

• Select and provide, at no cost to employees, appropriate respirators for routine use, infrequent use, and reasonably foreseeable emergencies (such as escape, emergency, and spill response situations) by completing the following process:

Respirator Selection Process

Step 1: If your only respirator use is for escape, skip to Step 8 to select appropriate respirators.

Step 2: If the respiratory hazard is a biological aerosol, such as TB (tuberculosis), anthrax, psittacosis (parrot fever), or hanta virus, select a respirator appropriate for nonemergency activities recognized to present a health risk to workers and skip to Step 8.

  • If respirator use will occur during emergencies, skip to Step 8 and document the analysis used to select the appropriate respirator.
  • Use Centers for Disease Control (CDC) selection guidance for exposures to specific biological agents when this guidance exists. Visit http://www.cdc.gov.

Step 3: If the respiratory hazard is a pesticide, follow the respirator specification on the pesticide label and skip to Step 9.

Step 4: Determine the expected exposure concentration for each respiratory hazard of concern. Use the results from the evaluation required by chapter 296-841 WAC, Airborne Contaminants .

Step 5: Determine if the respiratory hazard is classified as IDLH; if it's not IDLH skip to Step 7.

  • The respiratory hazard is classified as IDLH if:

    – The atmosphere is oxygen deficient or oxygen enriched;
    or
    – You can't measure or estimate your expected exposure concentration;
    or
    – Your measured or estimated expected exposure concentration is greater or equal to the IDLH value in the NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards.

Note

Note:

  • DOSH uses the IDLH values in the 1990 edition of the NIOSH Pocket Guide to Hazardous Chemicals to determine the existence of IDLH conditions. You may use more recent editions of this guide. Visit www.cdc.gov/niosh for more information.

Step 6: Select an appropriate respirator from one of the following respirators for IDLH conditions and skip to Step 8:

• Full-facepiece, pressure demand, self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) certified by NIOSH for a minimum service life of 30 minutes;
or
• Full-facepiece, pressure demand air-line respirator equipped with an auxiliary self-contained air supply.

Exemption

Exemption:

If the respiratory hazard is oxygen deficiency and you can show oxygen concentrations can be controlled within the ranges listed in Table 4 under all foreseeable conditions, you are allowed to select any type of SCBA or air-line respirator:

 

Table 4
Concentration Ranges for Oxygen Deficiency
Altitude
(as ft. above seal level)
Oxygen Concentration Range
(as percent oxygen)
Below 3,001
16.0 -19.5
3,001 - 4, 000
16.4 -19.5
4,001 - 5,000
17.1 -19.5
5,001 - 6,000
17.8 -19.5
6,001 -7,000
18.5 -19.5
7,001 - 8,000
19.3 -19.5
Above 8,000 feet the exception does not apply. Oxygen-enriched breathing air must be supplied above 14,000 feet.

Step 7: Select respirator types with assigned protection factors (APFs) from Table 5 that are appropriate to protect employees from the expected exposure concentration.

Note

Note:

Appendix B, using Assigned Protection Factors (APFs) for respirator selection, found in this chapter, uses the hazard-ratio approach established by ANSI Z88.2-1992 to determine which respirator types can provide a sufficient level of protection.

If no Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) is established for an airborne contaminant, use relevant available information and informed professional judgment to determine an acceptable exposure limit value to use for calculating hazard ratios. For example, you may use exposure limit values established by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH).



Step 8: Consider hazards that could require selection of specific respirator types. For example, select full-facepiece respirators to prevent eye irritation or abrasive blasting helmets to provide particle rebound protection.

Note

Note:

Rules for specific substances have additional selection specifications that apply to escape and other types of respirators. Make sure you follow those additional requirements before finalizing your selection.

 

Step 9: Evaluate user and workplace factors that might compromise respirator performance, reliability or safety.

 

Examples:

  • High humidity or temperature extremes in the workplace.
  • Necessary voice communication.
  • High traffic areas and moving machinery.
  • Time or distance for escape.
  • If respirator use is for escape only, follow this step and then skip to Step 11.
  • If the respiratory hazard is a pesticide, follow the requirements on the pesticide label and skip to 11 .

Step 10: Follow Table 6 requirements to select an air-purifying respirator.

  • If Table 6 requirements can’t be met, you must select an appropriate air-line respirator or an SCBA.

Step 11: Make sure respirators you select are certified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).

  • Respirators provided exclusively for escape from IDLH atmospheres must be NIOSH-certified for escape from the atmosphere in which they will be used.
  • To maintain certification, make sure the respirator is used according to cautions and limitations specified on the NIOSH approval label. This includes manufacturer restrictions on cartridges and canisters.

Note

Note:

While selecting respirators, you will need to select a sufficient number of types, models or sizes to provide for fit testing. You can also consider other respirator use issues, such as accommodating facial hair with a loose fitting respirator.

Helpful Tool

Helpful Tool:

Key Information about NIOSH Certified Respirators

This document will help you understand how to find and use NIOSH certification information. You can find a copy in the Resources section of this chapter.

Use Table 5 to identify the assigned protection factor for different types of respirators.

These assigned protection factors are only effective when the employer implements a continuing, effective respirator program as required by this chapter, including training, fit testing, maintenance, and use requirements.

You may select respirators assigned for use in higher workplace concentrations of a hazardous substance for use at lower concentrations of that substance, or when required use is independent of concentration.

Table 5
Assigned Protection Factors (APF) for Respirator Types
If the respirator is a(n) Then the APF is

Air-purifying respirator with a:


    • Quarter-mask
5
    • Half-facepiece. This category includes filtering facepiece and elastomeric facepiece
10
    • Full-facepiece
50

Powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) with a:

    • Loose-fitting facepiece
25
    • Half-facepiece
50
    • Full-facepiece
1000
    • Hood or helmet
    Note: PAPRs with helmets/hoods may receive an APF of 1000 only when you have evidence that testing of these respirators demonstrates performance at a level of protection of 1,000 or greater. Such evidence must be provided by the respirator manufacturer. This level of performance can best be demonstrated by performing a workplace protection factor (WPF) or simulated workplace protection factor (SWPF) study or equivalent testing.
25/1000 (see note)

Air-line respirator with a:

    • Half-facepiece and designed to operate in demand mode
10
    • Loose-fitting facepiece and designed to operate In continuous flow mode
25
    • Half-facepiece and designed to operate in continuous-flow mode
50
    • Half-facepiece and designed to operate in pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode
50
   
    • Full-facepiece and designed to operate in demand mode.
50
    • Full-facepiece and designed to operate in continuous-flow mode
1000
    • Full-facepiece and designed to operate in pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode.
1000
   
    • Helmet or hood and designed to operate in continuous-flow mode

Note: Air-line respirators with helmets/hoods designed to operate in continuous-flow mode may receive an APF of 1000 when you have evidence that testing of these respirators demonstrates performance at a level of protection of 1,000 or greater. Such evidence must be provided by the respirator manufacturer. This level of performance can best be demonstrated by performing a workplace protection factor (WPF) or simulated workplace protection factor (SWPF) study or equivalent testing.

25/1000 (see note)

Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) with a tight fitting:

    • Half-facepiece and designed to operate in demand mode
10
    • Full facepiece and designed to operate in demand mode
50
    • Full-facepiece and designed to operate in pressure-demand mode or other positive pressure mode (e.g., open/closed circuit)
10,000
    • Helmet or hood and designed to operate in demand mode.
50
    • Helmet or hood and designed to operate in pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode (e.g., open/closed circuit)
10,000
Combination respirators:  
    • When using a combination respirator, such as an air-line respirator with an air-purifying filter, you must make sure the APF is appropriate to the mode of operation in which the respirator is used.
Escape respirators:  
    • APFs in this table do not apply to respirators used solely for escape. To select escape respirators, go to Step 8 of this section.


Use Table 6 to select air-purifying respirators for particle, vapor, or gas contaminants.

Table 6
Requirements for Selecting Any Air-purifying Respirator

If the contaminant is a Then
Gas or vapor

Provide a respirator with canisters or cartridges equipped with a NIOSH-certified, end-of-service-life indicator (ESLI)

or
If a canister or cartridge with an ESLI is not available, develop a cartridge change schedule to make sure the canisters or cartridges are replaced before they are no longer effective

or
Select an atmosphere-supplying respirator

Particle, such as a dust, spray, mist, fog, fume, or aerosol

Select respirators with filters certified to be at least 95% efficient by NIOSH. For example, N95s, R99s, P100s, or High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters


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