Sawmills and Woodworking Operations
Chapter 296-78 (Continued)

Rule Contents

WAC 296-800-150 in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) formatFor printing

 

WAC 296-78-755 Natural and synthetic fiber rope slings.

(1) Sling use.

(a) Fiber rope slings made from conventional three strand construction fiber rope shall not be used with loads in excess of the rated capacities prescribed in Tables D-16 through D-19 of Part “D” of the general safety and health standards, chapter 296-24 WAC.

(b) Slings not included in these tables shall be used only in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.

(2) Safe operating temperatures. Natural and synthetic fiber rope slings, except for wet frozen slings, may be used in a temperature range from minus 20F to plus 180F without decreasing the working load limit. For operations outside this temperature range and for wet frozen slings, the sling manufacturer's recommendations shall be followed.

(3) Splicing. Spliced fiber rope slings shall not be used unless they have been spliced in accordance with the following minimum requirements and in accordance with any additional recommendations of the manufacturer:

(a) In manila rope, eye splices shall consist of at least three full tucks, and short splices shall consist of at least six full tucks, three on each side of the splice center line.

(b) In synthetic fiber rope, eye splices shall consist of at least four full tucks, and short splices shall consist of at least eight full tucks, four on each side of the center line.

(c) Strand end tails shall not be trimmed flush with the surface of the rope immediately adjacent to the full tucks. This applies to all types of fiber rope and both eye and short splices. For fiber rope under one inch in diameter, the tail shall project at least six rope diameters beyond the last full tuck. For fiber rope one inch in diameter and larger, the tail shall project at least six inches beyond the last full tuck. Where a projecting tail interferes with the use of the sling, the tail shall be tapered and spliced into the body of the rope using at least two additional tucks (which will require a tail length of approximately six rope diameters beyond the last full tuck).

(d) Fiber rope slings shall have a minimum clear length of rope between eye splices equal to ten times the rope diameter.

(e) Knots shall not be used in lieu of splices.

(f) Clamps not designed specifically for fiber ropes shall not be used for splicing.

(g) For all eye splices, the eye shall be of such size to provide an included angle of not greater than sixty degrees at the splice when the eye is placed over the load or support.

(4) End attachments. Fiber rope slings shall not be used if end attachments in contact with the rope have sharp edges or projections.

(5) Removal from service. Natural and synthetic fiber rope slings shall be immediately removed from service if any of the following conditions are present:

(a) Abnormal wear.

(b) Powdered fiber between strands.

(c) Broken or cut fibers.

(d) Variations in the size or roundness of strands.

(e) Discoloration or rotting.

(f) Distortion of hardware in the sling.

(6) Repairs. Only fiber rope slings made from new rope shall be used. Use of repaired or reconditioned fiber rope slings is prohibited.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-755, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-760 Synthetic web slings.

(1) Sling identification. Each sling shall be marked or coded to show the rated capacities for each type of hitch and type of synthetic web material.

(2) Webbing. Synthetic webbing shall be of uniform thickness and width and selvage edges shall not be split from the webbing's width.

(3) Fittings. Fittings shall be:

(a) Of a minimum breaking strength equal to that of the sling; and

(b) Free of all sharp edges that could in any way damage the webbing.

(4) Attachment of end fittings to webbing and formation of eyes. Stitching shall be the only method used to attach end fittings to webbing and to form eyes. The thread shall be in an even pattern and contain a sufficient number of stitches to develop the full breaking strength of the sling.

(5) Sling use. Synthetic web slings illustrated in Figure D-6 shall not be used with loads in excess of the rated capacities specified in Tables D-20 through D-22. Slings not included in these tables shall be used only in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.

(6) Environmental conditions. When synthetic web slings are used, the following precautions shall be taken:

(a) Nylon web slings shall not be used where fumes, vapors, sprays, mists or liquids of acids or phenolics are present.

(b) Polyester and polypropylene web slings shall not be used where fumes, vapors, sprays, mists or liquids of caustics are present.

(c) Web slings with aluminum fittings shall not be used where fumes, vapors, sprays, mists or liquids of caustics are present.

(7) Safe operating temperatures. Synthetic web slings of polyester and nylon shall not be used at temperatures in excess of 180F. Polypropylene web slings shall not be used at temperatures in excess of 200F.

(8) Repairs.

(a) Synthetic web slings which are repaired shall not be used unless repaired by a sling manufacturer or an equivalent entity.

(b) Each repaired sling shall be proof tested by the manufacturer or equivalent entity to twice the rated capacity prior to its return to service. The employer shall retain a certificate of the proof test and make it available for examination.

(c) Slings, including webbing and fittings, which have been repaired in a temporary manner shall not be used.

(9) Removal from service. Synthetic web slings shall be immediately removed from service if any of the following conditions are present:

(a) Acid or caustic burns;

(b) Melting or charring of any part of the sling surface;

(c) Snags, punctures, tears or cuts;

(d) Broken or worn stitches; or

(e) Distortion of fittings.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-760, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-765 Floor operated cranes.

(1) An unobstructed aisle not less than three feet wide shall be maintained for travel of the operator except in such cases where the control handles are hung from the trolleys of traveling cranes.

(2) The controller or controllers, if rope operated, shall automatically return to the “off” position when released by the operator.

(3) Pushbuttons, in pendant stations, shall return to the “off” position when pressure is released by the crane operator.

(4) All pushbuttons shall be marked to indicate their purpose.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-765, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-770 Operators.

(1) Cranes shall be operated only by regular crane operators, authorized substitutes who have had adequate experience and training under the supervision of a competent operator, or by crane repair person or inspectors.

(2) No person under the age of eighteen years shall be permitted to operate a crane.

(3) Operators shall be required to pass a practical examination limited to the specific type of equipment to be operated. Operators shall meet the following physical qualifications:

(a) Have vision of at least 20/30 Snellen in one eye, and 20/50 in the other, with or without corrective lenses.

(b) Be able to distinguish red, green, and yellow, regardless of position of colors, if color differentiation is required for operation.

(c) Hearing, with or without hearing aid, must be adequate for the specific operation.

(d) A history of epilepsy or an uncorrected disabling heart condition shall be cause for a doctor decision to determine qualifications to operate a crane.

(4) Hands shall be kept free when going up and down ladders. Articles which are too large to go into pockets or belts shall be lifted to or lowered from the crane by hand line. (Except where stairways are provided.)

(5) Cages shall be kept free of clothing and other personal belongings. Tools, extra fuses, oil cans, waste and other articles necessary in the crane cage shall be stored in a tool box and not left loose on or about the crane.

(6) The operator shall familiarize himself fully with all crane rules and with the crane mechanism and its proper care. If adjustments or repairs are necessary, he shall report the same at once to the proper authority.

(7) The operator shall not eat, smoke or read while actually engaged in the operation of the crane.

(8) The operator or someone especially designated shall lubricate all working parts of the crane.

(9) Cranes shall be examined for loose parts or defects each day on which they are in use.

(10) Sawdust, oil or other debris shall not be allowed to accumulate to create a fire, health or slipping hazard.

(11) Operators shall avoid, as far as possible, carrying loads over workers. Loads shall not be carried over employees without sounding an audible warning alarm.

(12) Whenever the operator finds the main or emergency switch open, he shall not close it, even when starting on regular duty, until he has made sure that no one is on or about the crane. He shall not oil or repair the crane unless the main switch is open.

(13) If the power goes off, the operator shall immediately throw all controllers to “off” position until the power is again available.

(14) Before closing the main switch the operator shall make sure that all controllers are in “off” position until the power is again available.

(15) The operator shall pay special attention to the block, when long hitches are made, to avoid tripping the limit switch.

(16) The operator shall recognize signals only from the person who is supervising the lift except for emergency stop signals. Operating signals shall follow established standard crane signals as illustrated in WAC 296-78-830 of this chapter. Whistle signals may be used where one crane only is in operation. Cranes shall have audible warning device which shall be sounded in event of emergency.

(17) Before starting to hoist, the operator shall place the trolley directly over the load to avoid swinging it when being hoisted.

(18) The operator shall not make side pulls with the crane except when especially instructed to do so by the proper authority.

(19) When handling maximum loads, the operator shall test the hoist brakes after the load has been lifted a few inches. If the brakes do not hold, the load shall be lowered at once and the brakes adjusted or repaired.

(20) Bumping into runway stops or other cranes shall be avoided. When the operator is ordered to engage with or push other cranes, he shall do so with special care for the safety of persons on or below cranes.

(21) When lowering a load, the operator shall proceed carefully and make sure that he has the load under safe control.

(22) When leaving the cage the operator shall throw all controllers to “off” position and open the main switch.

(23) If the crane is located out of doors the operator shall lock the crane in a secure position to prevent it from being blown along or off the track by a severe wind.

(24) Railroad cars shall not be pulled along the tracks with sidepulls on an overhead crane.

(25) Operators shall not move the crane or a load unless floor signals are clearly understood.

(26) The rated lifting capacity of a crane shall not be exceeded. If any doubt exists about the weight of a load which might exceed the rated capacity, the foreman in charge must be contacted before any attempt is made to lift the load. The foreman shall determine that the load is within the rated capacity of the crane or the load shall not be lifted.

(27) Crane operators and floorpersons shall coordinate their activities on every lift or movement of the crane. Both the operator and signalperson shall clearly understand any problem a movement might create with regard to surrounding materials, structures, equipment or personnel.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-770, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-775 Signalpersons.

(1) Signalpersons shall give all the signals to the operator in accordance with established standard signals as illustrated in WAC 296-78-830 of this chapter.

(2) A designated person shall be responsible for the condition and use of all hoisting accessories and for all hitches.

(3) Before an operator moves a crane upon which an empty chain or cable sling is hanging, both ends of the sling shall be placed on the hook.

(4) Signalpersons, where necessary, shall walk ahead of the moving load and warn people to keep clear of it. They shall see that the load is carried high enough to clear all obstructions.

(5) Signalpersons shall notify the person in charge in advance when an extra heavy load is to be handled.

(6) No person shall be permitted to stand or pass under an electric magnet in use.

(7) The electrical circuit for electric magnets shall be maintained in good condition. Means for taking up the slack cable shall be provided.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-775, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-780 Repairpersons.

(1) When repairs are necessary, repairpersons shall have the crane run to a location where the repair work will least interfere with the other cranes and with operations on the floor.

(2) Before starting repairs, repairpersons shall see that all controllers are thrown to the “off” position, and that main or emergency switches are opened; one of these shall be locked out in compliance with WAC 296-78-715(11) of this chapter.

(3) Repairpersons shall immediately place warning signs or “Out of Order” signs on a crane to be repaired and also on the floor beneath or hanging from the crane so that it can easily be seen from the floor. If other cranes are operated on the same runway, repairpersons shall also place rail stops at a safe distance or make other safe provisions.

(4) When repairing runways, repairpersons shall place rail stops and warning signs or signals so as to protect both ends of the section to be repaired.

(5) Repairpersons shall take care to prevent loose parts from falling or being thrown upon the floor beneath.

(6) Repairs shall not be considered complete until all guards and safety devices have been put in place and the block and tackle and other loose material have been removed.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-780, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-785 Construction requirements.

(1) Calculations for wind pressure on outside overhead traveling cranes shall be based on not less than 30 pounds per square foot of exposed surface.

(2) No overhung gears shall be used unless provided with an effective means of keeping them in place, and keys shall be secured to prevent gears working loose.

Safety lugs or brackets shall be provided on the trolley frames and bridge ends of overhead traveling cranes, so that in the event of a broken axle or wheel the trolley or bridge proper will not have a drop greater than one inch.

(3) Where there are no members over an outside overhead crane suitable for attaching blocks for repair work, and a locomotive crane is not available, a structural steel outrigger of sufficient strength to lift the heaviest part of the trolley shall be provided.

(4) Outside overhead traveling cranes shall be equipped with wind indicators and rail clamps as required by the general safety and health standards, WAC 296-24-23503.

(5) Foot brakes, or other effective means shall be provided to control the bridge travel of all overhead traveling cranes.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-785, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-790 Crane platforms and footwalks.

(1) Platforms shall be provided when changing and repairing truck wheels on end trucks.

(2) A platform or footwalk shall be located on crane or crane runway to give access to the crane cage, and it shall be accessible from one or more stairways or fixed ladders. This platform or footwalk shall be not less than eighteen inches in width.

(3) Where stairways are used to give access to platforms they shall make an angle of not more than fifty degrees with the horizontal and shall be equipped with substantial railing. If ladders are used to give access to platforms they shall extend not less than thirty-six inches above the platform. Railed stairways or ladders to be used as a means of ingress and egress to crane cages shall be located at either or both ends.

(4) A footwalk shall be placed along the entire length of the bridge on the motor side, and a short platform twice the length of the trolley placed at one end of the girder on the opposite side, with a vertical clearance of a least six feet six inches where the design of crane or building permits, but in no case shall there be less than four feet clearance. For hand operated cranes the footwalk shall not be required to be installed on the bridge of the crane, but there shall be a repair platform equal in strength and design to that required for motor operated cranes, installed on the wall of the building or supported by the crane runway at a height equal to the lower edge of the bridge girder to facilitate necessary repairs.

(5) Clear width of footwalks shall not be less than eighteen inches except around the bridge motor where it may be reduced to fifteen inches.

(6) Footwalks shall be of substantial construction and rigidly braced. Footwalks for outside service shall be constructed so as to provide proper drainage, but the cracks between the boards shall not be wider than one-fourth inch.

(7) Every footwalk shall have a standard railing and toeboard at all exposed edges. Railings and toeboards shall conform in construction and design with the following requirements:

(a) Railings shall be not less than thirty-six inches nor more than forty-two inches in height, with an additional rail midway between the top rail and the floor.

(b) Pipe railings shall be not less than one and one-fourth inch inside diameter if of iron or be not less than one and one-half inches outside diameter if of brass tubing.

(c) Metal rails other than pipe shall be at least equal in strength to that of one and one-half by three-sixteenths inch angle and shall be supported by uprights of equal strength.

(d) Posts or uprights shall be spaced not more than eight feet center to center.

(e) Toeboards shall be not less than four inches in height.

(f) Toeboards shall be constructed in a permanent and substantial manner of metal, wood, or other material equivalent thereto in strength. Where of wood, toeboards shall be at least equal in cross section to one inch by four inches; where of steel at least one-eighth inch by four inches; where of other construction at least equal to the requirements for steel. Perforations up to one-half inch are permissible in metal toeboards.

(8) No openings shall be permitted between the bridge footwalk and the crane girders. Where wire mesh is used to fill this opening the mesh openings shall be not greater than one-half inch.

(9) All footwalks and platforms shall be so designed as to be capable of sustaining a concentrated load of one hundred pounds per lineal foot.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-790, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-795 Crane cages.

(1) Safe means of escape shall be provided for operators of all cranes in all operating locations. Rope ladders shall not be used as a regular means of access but may be installed as an emergency escape device to be used in the event of fire, mechanical breakdown or other emergency.

(2) The operator's cage shall be located at a place from which signals can be clearly distinguishable, and shall be securely fastened in a place and well braced to minimize vibration. It shall be large enough to allow ample room for the control equipment and the operator. The operator shall not be required to step over an open space of more than eighteen inches when entering the cage.

(3) Cab operated cranes shall be equipped with a portable fire extinguisher which meets the requirements of the general safety and health core rules, WAC 296-800-300.

(4) In establishments where continuous loud noises prevail such as caused by the operation of pneumatic tools, steam exhausts from boilers, etc., adequate signals shall be installed on cranes or one or more employees shall be placed on the floor for each crane operated to give warning to other employees of the approach of a crane with a load. Where there are more than two cranes on the same runway or within the same building structure, signaling devices are required to give warning to other employees of the approach of a crane with a load.

(5) Cages of cranes subjected to heat from below shall be of noncombustible construction and shall have a steel plate shield not less than one-eighth inch thick, placed not less than six inches below the bottom of the floor of the cage.

(6) Outside crane cages shall be enclosed. There shall be windows on three sides of the cage. The windows in the front and the side opposite the door shall be the full width of the cage.

(7) The floor of the cage on out-door cranes shall be extended to form an entrance landing which shall be equipped with a handrail and toeboard constructed to the specifications of WAC 296-78-790 of this chapter.

(8) A copy of the rules for operators shall be permanently posted in the cages of all cage-operated cranes.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 01-11-038 (Order 99-36), 296-78-795, filed 05/09/01, effective 09/01/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-795, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-800 Crane rail stops, bumpers and fenders.

(1) Rail stops shall be provided at both ends of the crane runway and at ends of the crane bridge. When two trolleys are operated on the same bridge rails, bumpers shall be provided to prevent collision of trolleys.

(2) Bumpers and rail stops shall extend at least as high as the centers of the wheel.

(3) Rail stops shall be fastened to the girders or girders and rails, but not to the rails alone. This does not apply to portable rail stops. Portable rail stops shall not be used as permanent rail stops.

(4) Rail stops shall be built up of plates and angles or be made of cast steel.

(5) Fenders shall be installed which extend below the lowest point of the treads of gantry type crane wheels. They shall be of a shape and form that will tend to push or raise an employee's hand, arm or leg off the rail and away from the wheel.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-17-056, 296-78-800, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-800, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-805 Crawler locomotive and truck cranes. 

Crawler locomotive and truck cranes shall be constructed, maintained, inspected and operated in accordance with the provisions of WAC 296-24-240 through 296-24-24019 of the general safety and health standards.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-805, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-810 Chain and electric hoists.

(1) Chain and electric hoists shall be of what is known as “all steel construction.” No cast iron shall be used in parts subject to tension except drums, bearings or brake shoes.

(2) The chains shall be made of the best quality steel or iron with welded links.

(3) Chain and electric hoists shall have a factor of safety of at least five.

(4) Chain and electric hoists shall be equipped with a device which will automatically lock the load when hoisting is stopped.

(5) Electric hoists shall be provided with a limit stop to prevent the hoist block from traveling too far in case the operating handle is not released in time.

(6) Workers shall not ride the load of any chain or electric hoist. If necessary to balance the load manually, it shall be done from a safe distance.

(7) The rated capacity of the hoist shall be posted on both the hoist and the jib or rail.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-810, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-815 Monorail hoists.

(1) No attempt shall be made with a monorail hoist to lift or move an object by a side pull, unless designed for that purpose.

(2) A stop shall be provided at all switches and turntables which will prevent the trolley from running off should the switch be turned or be left in the open position.

(3) All monorail hoists operating on swivels shall be equipped with one or more safety catches which will support the load should a suspension pin fail. All trolley frames shall be safeguarded against spreading.

(4) Rail stops shall be provided at the ends of crane runways. Such rail stops shall extend at least as high as the centers of the wheels.

(5) All monorail hoists shall have the rated capacity posted on both the hoist and the rail.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-815, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-820 Air hoists.

(1) To prevent piston rod lock nuts from becoming loose and allowing rod to drop when supporting a load, lock nut shall be secured to piston rod by a castellated nut and cotter-pin.

(2) A clevis, “D” strap or other means shall be used to prevent the hoist cylinder becoming detached from the hanger.

(3) All air hoists shall have their rated capacity posted on both the hoist and the jib or rail.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-820, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-825 Jib, pillar, and portable floor cranes, crabs, and winches.

(1) Side pulls shall not be made with jib or pillar cranes. The arm or boom shall be directly over the load when making a lift.

(2) The gears of all cranes shall be enclosed, and if hand operated by means of a crab or winch, a locking dog shall be provided to hold load when the handle is released.

(3) Some form of brake or safety lowering device shall be provided on all crabs, winches, and jib cranes.

(4) A hoist limiting device shall be provided on all jib cranes of ten or more tons capacity.

(5) The rated capacity of the hoisting device shall be posted on the hoist and the arm or boom.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-825, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-830 Standard crane hand signals--Illustrations.

(1) The following hand signals shall be used for crawler, locomotive, and truck cranes and a copy shall be posted in the cab at the operator's station.

CRAWLER, LOCOMOTIVE, AND TRUCK CRANES

STANDARD HAND SIGNALS FOR CRANES

 

(2) The following hand signals shall be used for overhead and gantry cranes and a copy shall be posted in the cab at the operator's station.

STANDARD HAND SIGNALS FOR 

CONTROLLING OVERHEAD AND GANTRY CRANES

 

(3) The following hand signals shall be used for derricks and a copy shall be posted in the cab at the operator's station.

STANDARD HAND SIGNALS 

FOR CONTROLLING DERRICKS

(4) The following hand signals shall be used for portal, tower, and pillar cranes and a copy shall be posted in the cab at the operator's station.

STANDARD HAND SIGNALS FOR CONTROLLING

PORTAL, TOWER AND PILLAR CRANES

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-830, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-835 Vehicles.

(1) Vehicles.

(a) Scope. Vehicles shall include all mobile equipment normally used in sawmill, planing mill, storage, shipping, and yard operations, including log sorting yards.

(b) Lift trucks. Lift truck shall be designed, constructed, maintained and operated in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-24-230 through 296-24-23035 of the general safety and health standards.

(c) Carriers. Drive chains on lumber carriers shall be adequately guarded to prevent contact at the pinch points.

(d) (i) Lumber carriers shall be so designed and constructed that the operator's field of vision shall not be unnecessarily restricted.

(ii) Carriers shall be provided with ladders or equivalent means of access to the operator's platform or cab.

(e) Lumber hauling trucks.

(i) On trucks where the normal operating position is ahead of the load in the direction of travel, the cab shall be protected by a barrier at least as high as the cab. The barrier shall be capable of stopping the weight of the load capacity of the vehicle if the vehicle were to be stopped suddenly while traveling at its normal operating speed. The barrier shall be constructed in such a manner that individual pieces of a normal load will not go through openings in the barrier.

(ii) Stakes, stake pockets, racks, tighteners, and binders shall provide a positive means to secure the load against any movement during transit.

(iii) Where rollers are used, at least two shall be equipped with locks which shall be locked when supporting loads during transit.

(2) Warning signals and spark arrestors. All vehicles shall be equipped with audible warning signals and where practicable shall have spark arrestors.

(3) Flywheels, gears, sprockets and chains and other exposed parts that constitute a hazard to workers shall be enclosed in standard guards.

(4) All vehicles operated after dark or in any area of reduced visibility shall be equipped with head lights and backup lights which adequately illuminate the direction of travel for the normal operating speed of the vehicle. The vehicle shall also be equipped with tail lights which are visible enough to give sufficient warning to surrounding traffic at the normal traffic operating speed.

(5) All vehicles operated in areas where overhead hazards exist shall be equipped with an overhead guard for the protection of the operator.

(6) Where vehicles are so constructed and operated that there is a possibility of the operator being injured by backing into objects, a platform guard shall be provided and so arranged as not to hinder the exit of the driver.

(7) Trucks, lift trucks and carriers shall not be operated at excessive rates of speed. When operating on tramways or docks more than six feet above the ground or lower level they shall be limited to a speed of not more than twelve miles per hour. When approaching blind corners they shall be limited to four miles per hour.

(8) Vehicles shall not be routed across principal thoroughfares while employees are going to or from work unless pedestrian lanes are provided.

(a) Railroad tracks and other hazardous crossings shall be plainly posted.

(b) Restricted overhead clearance. All areas of restricted side or overhead clearance shall be plainly marked.

(c) Pickup and unloading points. Pickup and unloading points and paths for lumber packages on conveyors and transfers and other areas where accurate spotting is required, shall be plainly marked and wheel stops provided where necessary.

(d) Aisles, passageways, and roadways. Aisles, passageways, and roadways shall be sufficiently wide to provide safe side clearance. One-way aisles may be used for two-way traffic if suitable turnouts are provided.

(9) Where an operator's vision is impaired by the vehicle or load it is carrying, he shall move only on signal from someone so stationed as to have a clear view in the direction the vehicle is to travel.

(10) Reserved.

(11) Load limits. No vehicle shall be operated with loads exceeding its safe load capacity.

(12) Vehicles with internal combustion engines shall not be operated in enclosed buildings or buildings with ceilings less than sixteen feet high unless the buildings have ventilation adequate to maintain air quality as required by the general occupational health standard, chapter 296-62 WAC.

(13) Vehicles shall not be refueled while motor is running. Smoking or open flames shall not be allowed in the refueling area.

(14) No employee other than trained operators or mechanics shall start the motor of, or operate any log or lumber handling vehicle.

(15) All vehicles shall be equipped with brakes capable of holding and controlling the vehicle and capacity load upon any grade or incline over which they may operate.

(16) Unloading equipment and facilities.

(a) Machines used for hoisting, unloading, or lowering logs shall be equipped with brakes capable of controlling or holding the maximum load in midair.

(b) The lifting cylinders of all hydraulically operated log handling machines, or where the load is lifted by wire rope, shall be equipped with a positive device for preventing the uncontrolled lowering of the load or forks in case of a failure in the hydraulic system.

(c) A limit switch shall be installed on powered log handling machines to prevent the lift arms from traveling too far in the event the control switch is not released in time.

(d) When forklift-type machines are used to load trailers, a means of securing the loading attachment to the fork shall be installed and used.

(e) A-frames and similar log unloading devices shall have adequate height to provide safe clearance for swinging loads and to provide for adequate crotch lines and spreader bar devices.

(f) Log handling machines used to stack logs or lift loads above operator's head shall be equipped with overhead protection.

(g) Unloading devices shall be equipped with a horn or other plainly audible signaling device.

(h) Movement of unloading equipment shall be coordinated by audible or hand signals when operator's vision is impaired or operating in the vicinity of other employees.

Lift trucks regularly used for transporting peeler blocks or cores shall have tusks or a similar type hold down device to prevent the blocks or cores from rolling off the forks.

(17) Where spinners are used on steering wheels, they shall be of the automatic retracting type or shall be built into the wheel in such a manner as not to extend above the plane surface of the wheel. Vehicles equipped with positive antikickback steering are exempted from this requirement.

(18) Mechanical stackers and unstackers shall have all gears, sprockets and chains exposed to the contact of workers, fully enclosed by guards as required by WAC 296-78-710 of this chapter.

(19) Manually operated control switches shall be properly identified and so located as to be readily accessible to the operator. Main control switches shall be so designed that they can be locked in the open position.

(20) Employees shall not stand or walk under loads being lifted or moved. Means shall be provided to positively block the hoisting platform when employees must go beneath the stacker or unstacker hoist.

(21) No person shall ride any lift truck or lumber carrier unless a suitable seat is provided, except for training purposes.

(22) Unstacking machines shall be provided with a stopping device which shall at all times be accessible to at least one employee working on the machine.

(23) Floor of unstacker shall be kept free of broken stickers and other debris. A bin or frame shall be provided to allow for an orderly storage of stickers.

(24) Drags or other approved devices shall be provided to prevent lumber from running down on graders.

(25) Liquified petroleum gas storage and handling. Storage and handling of liquified petroleum gas shall be in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-24-475 through 296-24-47517 of the general safety and health standards.

(26) Flammable liquids. Flammable liquids shall be stored and handled in accordance with WAC 296-24-330 through 296-24-33019 of the general safety and health standards.

(27) Guarding side openings. The hoistway side openings at the top level of the stacker and unstacker shall be protected by enclosures of standard railings.

(28) Guarding hoistway openings. When the hoist platform or top of the load is below the working platform, the hoistway openings shall be guarded.

(29) Guarding lower landing area. The lower landing area of stackers and unstackers shall be guarded by enclosures that prevent entrance to the area or pit below the hoist platform. Entrances should be protected by electrically interlocked gates which, when open, will disconnect the power and set the hoist brakes. When the interlock is not installed, other positive means of protecting the entrance shall be provided.

(30) Lumber lifting devices. Lumber lifting devices on all stackers shall be designed and arranged so as to minimize the possibility of lumber falling from such devices.

(31) Inspection. At the start of each work shift, equipment operators shall inspect the equipment they will use for evidence of failure or incipient failure. Equipment found to have defects which might affect the operating safety shall not be used until the defects are corrected.

(32) Cleaning pits. Safe means of entrance and exit shall be provided to permit cleaning of pits.

(33) Preventing entry to hazardous area. Where the return of trucks from unstacker to stacker is by mechanical power or gravity, adequate signs, warning devices, or barriers shall be erected to prevent entry into the hazardous area.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 07-03-163 (Order 06-30), § 296-78-835, filed 01/24/07, effective 04/01/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 06-05-027 (Order 05-45), § 296-78-835, filed 02/07/06, effective 04/01/06. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.060. 03-06-076 (Order 02-33), § 296-78-835, filed 03/04/03, effective 08/01/03. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-17-056, § 296-78-835, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), § 296-78-835, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-840 Loading, piling, storage and conveying.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-840, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-84001 Loading, piling, storage and conveying-General.

(1) Units or loads of lumber built up for transportation by overhead cranes, lift trucks, auto trucks, or manually or mechanically operated transfers shall be provided with at least one set of stickers for each eighteen inches in height of unit or load. One set of stickers shall be not more than six inches from the top of units of lumber up to three inch dimension. Where dimension of material is greater than three inches, a set of stickers shall be placed under the top layer. Stickers shall extend the full width of the package, shall be uniformly spaced, and shall be aligned one above the other. Stickers may be lapped with a minimum overlapping of twelve inches. Stickers shall not protrude more than two inches beyond the sides of the package.

(2) Lumber loading. Loads shall be built and secured to insure stability in transit.

(3) Units or loads of lumber shall not be lifted or moved until all workers are in the clear.

(4) Gradient of roll sets or roll cases over which units of lumber are to be moved shall not exceed three percent. The movement of units shall be under control at all times.

(5) Stacking of lumber in yards, either by units or in block piles, shall be conducted in a safe and orderly manner.

(6) Foundations for piling lumber in yards shall be capable of supporting the maximum applied load without tipping or sagging.

(7) The height of stacked units in storage areas shall not exceed seven of the usual four foot units, subject to the following qualifications:

(a) Units of lumber shall not be stacked more than four high unless two or more stacks of units are tied together with ties.

(b) Long units of lumber shall not be stacked upon shorter packages except where a stable pile can be made with the use of package separators.

(c) In unit package piles, substantial polsters or unit separators shall be placed between each package directly over the stickers.

(8) Wooden horses used for loading preformed loads of lumber shall be of material not less than four by six inches in cross section net measure.

(9) Unstable piles. Piles of lumber which have become unstable shall be immediately made stable or removed.

(10) Lift boards or pallets shall be loaded in such a manner as to prevent material from spilling or the material shall be secured with a binder.

(11) Packing rooms shall be kept free of debris and chutes shall be equipped with a means of slowing down the materials.

(12) Sorting chains shall be provided with a stopping device which shall at all times be readily accessible to at least one employee working on the chain.

(13) The inside of the walkway of all green chains and sorting tables shall be provided with a standard toeboard.

(14) Rollers or other devices shall be provided for removing heavy dimension lumber from the cabin or table.

(15) Roll casings and transfer tables shall be cleaned regularly and shall be kept reasonably free from debris.

(16) In all permanent installations, green chains and sorting tables shall be roofed over to provide protection from inclement weather. Normal work stations shall be provided with a drained work surface which is evenly floored of nonslip material.

(17) Power driven rolls shall be operated in a manner to prevent end collisions.

(18) The space between live rolls shall be filled in on either side of crosswalks with material of structural strength to withstand the load imposed with a four to one safety factor.

(19) The driving mechanism of live rolls shall be guarded wherever exposed to contact.

(20) Live rolls shall be replaced when their surface develops a break or hole.

(21) Guarding. Spiked live rolls shall be guarded.

(22) Ramps or skidways used to transfer lumber or materials from one level to another shall be provided with all safeguards necessary for the protection of workers.

(23) Landings on a lower level where lumber or timbers are discharged over ramps or skidways shall be provided with a solid bumper not less than six inches in height at the outer edge. Such landing shall be maintained in good repair at all times.

(24) Ramps or skidways shall be so arranged that the person putting lumber down shall have a clear view of the lower landing. Lumber or timbers shall not be put down until all workers are in the clear.

(25) (a) The under face of all ramp or skidway landings shall be fenced off or other positive means provided to prevent persons from walking out under dropping timber.

(b) Return strands of sorting table ramp chains shall be supported by troughs of sufficient strength to support the weight of a broken chain.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-84001, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-84003 Conveyors.

(1) Construction, operation, and maintenance of conveyors shall be in accordance with American National Standard B20.1 - 1957, Safety Code for Conveyors, Cableways and related equipment.

(2) Conveyor troughs in which the working strands of a conveyor operate shall be of ample dimension and strength to carry a broken chain and shall afford effective protection to all employees.

(3) When the return strand of a conveyor operates within seven feet of the floor there shall be a trough provided of sufficient strength to carry the weight resulting from a broken chain.

(4) When the return strands of a conveyor pass over passageways or work areas such guards shall be placed under them as will effectively protect workers.

(5) When the working strand of a conveyor crosses within three feet of the floor level in passageways, the trough in which it works shall be bridged the full width of the passageway.

(6) Where conveyor, idler pulleys or other equipment is located over or dangerously near burning refuse, any worker going to such location shall use a safety line which shall be securely fastened to his body and tended by a helper.

(7) Conveyors shall be provided with an emergency panic-type stopping device which can be reached by a person in a sitting position on the conveyor. Such device shall be located near the material entrance to each barker, chipper, hog, saw, or similar type of equipment except where the conveyor leading into such equipment is under constant control of an operator who has full view of the material entrance and is located or restrained where he/she cannot possibly fall onto the conveyor. The device shall stop the conveyor a sufficient distance away from the hazard to prevent injury or further injury by the hazard.

(8) Screw or auger type conveyor troughs and boxes shall be equipped with covers. If it is not practical to cover the troughs or boxes, other equivalent type guards shall be provided.

Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-84003, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-84005 Dry kilns.

(1) Transfer, kiln and dolly tracks shall be properly maintained at all times and shall have a grade of not more than one and one-fourth percent. Bumpers or stops shall be installed at the ends of all tracks capable of stopping a normal load for which the track is installed. A means shall be provided for chocking or blocking cars.

(2) Doors.

(a) Main kiln doors. Main kiln doors shall be provided with a method of holding them open while kiln is being loaded.

(b) Counterweights on vertical lift doors shall be boxed or otherwise guarded.

(c) Means shall be provided to firmly secure main doors, when they are disengaged from carriers and hangers, to prevent toppling.

(3) Kilns whose operation requires inside inspection shall be maintained with not less than eighteen inches clearance between loaded cars and the walls of the kiln. The requirements for personal protective equipment specified in WAC 296-800-160, safety and health core rules, and chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators shall be complied with.

(4) Kiln loads shall be equipped or arranged for easy attachment and detachment of transfer cables. Means for stopping kiln cars shall be available at all times.

(5) Cars shall not be moved until tracks are clear and workers are out of the bight of transfer lines.

(6) When kiln or dolly loads of lumber are permitted to coast through or adjacent to any work area, audible warning shall be given.

(7) Stickers shall not be allowed to protrude more than two inches from the sides of kiln stacks.

(8) Yards and storage areas shall be kept reasonably free of debris and unnecessary obstruction. Warning signs shall be conspicuously posted wherever there is danger from moving vehicles or equipment.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050, and .060. 05-03-093 (Order 04-41), § 296-78-84005, filed 01/18/05, effective 03/01/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, .040, .050. 01-11-038 (Order 99-36), 296-78-84005, filed 05/09/01, effective 09/01/01. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-17-056, 296-78-84005, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96; 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), 296-78-84005, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-84005, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-84007 Chippers and hogs.

(1) Chippers. The feed system to the chipper shall be arranged so the operator does not stand in direct line with the chipper spout (hopper). The chipper spout shall be enclosed to a height or distance of not less than forty inches from the floor or the operator's station. A safety belt and lifeline shall be worn by workers when working at or near the spout unless the spout is guarded. The lifeline shall be short enough to prevent workers from falling into the chipper.

(2) Hog mills shall be provided with feed chutes so designed and arranged that from no position on the rim of the chute shall the distance to the knives or feed roll be less than forty inches. Baffles shall be provided which shall effectively prevent material from being thrown from the mill.

(3) Employees feeding hog mills shall be provided with safety belts and lines, which they shall be required to use at all times, unless otherwise protected from any possibility of falling into the mill.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 96-17-056, 296-78-84007, filed 8/20/96, effective 10/15/96. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-84007, filed 8/27/81

WAC 296-78-84009 Bins and bunkers.

(1) Bins, bunkers, hoppers, and fuel houses. Guarding. Open bins, bunkers, and hoppers whose upper edges extend less than three feet above working level shall be equipped with standard handrails and toeboards, or have their tops covered by a substantial grill or grating with openings small enough to prevent a person from falling through.

(2) Fuel hoppers shall be provided with doors that may be remotely operated.

(3) Fuel hoppers shall be provided with platforms with standard railings and adequately lighted for the protection of workers taking out fuel.

(4) (a) Fuel bins shall be provided with an approved railed platform or walkway near the top or other approved means, for the use of employees engaged in dislodging congested fuel. No employee shall enter any fuel bin except where adequately safeguarded.

(b) Recognizing however, the varying designs of fuel storage vaults and the type of fuel handled and certain peculiar local conditions, the adequacy of safety devices shall be determined by a duly authorized representative of the department of Labor & Industries, division of industrial safety and health.

(c) During operations when the flow of normal fuel is interrupted but dust from operating sanders is received in the bin, workers shall not enter the fuel bin until the flow of sander dust has been discontinued and the dust has settled.

(d) Use of wheeled equipment to load bins. Where automotive or other wheeled equipment is used to move materials into bins, bunkers, and hoppers, adequate guard rails shall be installed along each side of the runway, and a substantial bumper stop provided when necessary.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-84009, filed 8/27/81.]

WAC 296-78-84011 Burners.

(1) Burners and smoke stacks other than the self-supporting type shall be adequately guyed. Buckle guys shall be installed if burner or stack is more than fifty feet in height.

(2) Runway. The conveyor runway to the burner shall be equipped with a standard handrail. If the runway crosses a roadway or thoroughfare, standard toeboards shall be provided in addition.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. 81-18-029 (Order 81-21), 296-78-84011, filed 8/27/81.]

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